Tanzania is the biggest nation in East Africa, enclosed by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda to the west , Zambia, Mozambique and Malawi, and to the south. Tanzania is alleged to have been inhabited by hunter-gatherer societies, possibly Cushitic and Chosen speaking inhabitants. Tanzania houses the utmost crest of Mount Kilimanjaro and the lowest point Lake Tanganyika, as well as a segment of the prevalent Lake Victoria, which is shared with Kenya and Uganda both on the continent of African. Tanzania has some global prominent natural appeals which include the two parks; Serengeti National Park and Tarangire National Park-less renowned attractions but worth a visit!
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Located in East Africa, Tanzania is one of the largest countries on the African continent. It adjoins Kenya and Uganda in the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the west; Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique in the south; and the Indian Ocean in the east. Tanzania has a tropical climate, with temperatures ranging between 10 and 20 degrees Celsius in the highlands in winter and seldom falling below 20 degrees in the rest of the country. The national resources of the country are minerals, such as gold, diamonds, and various other gemstones; fisheries in the large lakes, such as Lakes Victoria and Nyasa; forestry; and wildlife tourism. Among Tanzania's major tourist attractions are the national parks, especially Serengeti National Park, together with its companion Ngorogoro Conservation Area, and Tarangire National Park.
Serengeti National Park is located in northern Tanzania, 335 kilometers (208 miles) from Arusha, stretching north to Kenya and bordering Lake Victoria to the west. Serengeti is Tanzania's oldest and most popular national park; it is a United Nations World Heritage Site and was recently listed among the Seven Wonders of the World. The climate of the park is usually hot. The rainy season runs from March to May, while the weather remains dry during the rest of the year. The Maasai are the indigenous people in this area, where they have lived for over 2000 years. It was the British colonial government that took the first bites out of the Maasai lands in 1929, establishing an 800-acre game reserve for hunting, which later became the basis for Serengeti National Park. In order to preserve wildlife, the government relocated the resident Maasai to the Ngorogoro highlands.
Tarangire National Park is in the northern course of Tanzania and was given this name after the Tarangire River flowing inside the park. Tangarire National Park is the sixth largest National Park in Tanzania after Ruaha, Serengeti, Mikumi, Katavi and Mkomazi.Tarangire National Park is the most southerly of the accessible parks of northern Tanzania. Named after Tarangire River, the park covers an area of 2,600 square kilometers. Tarangire National Park boasts the country's greatest concentration of wild life, because it contains the main water resource for wild animals in its region. The park is famous for its large number of elephants, its baobab trees, and its tree-climbing African pythons. The climate of the park is wet, with maximum temperatures in the mid to high 20s from December to February.
For both economic and ecological reasons, these national parks are dedicated to the maintenance of untamed animals. In Serengeti, as Poole states, RianLabuschange, managing director of the Grumeti Reserves, an enterprise that recently leased almost 280,000 acres, agreed to agree to manage the park's world-class wildlife resource in a way that will be sustainable for the next hundred years. In terms of the management problems they face, Tarangire National Park and Serengeti National Park have a number of similarities. Many of these problems concern conflicts between the local people and the wildlife. Wild animals from both parks stray onto nearby farms, where they destroy property and sometimes attack people.
In their article "Conservation, Livelihoods and the Intrinsic Value of Wildlife: Tarangire," Kangwana and Ole Make note that locals living near the park report many problems, such as the destruction of crops by wild animals, the death of livestock through predation or disease, and personal insecurity because of the presence of dangerous wild animals, such as buffalos and elephants. Similar troubles affect Serengeti National Park. In "Heart break on the Serengeti," Poole documents incidents variance between human and wildlife, such as a case in which an elephant trampled and killed a villager. The opposite kind of problem, in which humans destroy park land and wildlife, also occurs in both parks.
For example, local residents farm illegitimately, track for animals, and cut down trees in these parks; another similarity involves resource conflicts. In both parks, the local people have an extremely difficulties when it comes to fresh water access. Poole observes that some of the herders in the vicinity of Serengeti National Park have to walk three to four hours to get to a water source, which they have to share with the park's wildlife. In Tarangire, humans and wild animals need to distribute natural resources as well. There, the major concerns are a decrease in water supply, increasing aridity, and the loss of trees.
Along with their similarities, the two parks have a number of differences. The first of these concerns the relationship between the local people and the park service personnel. In "Heart break on the Serengeti," Poole reports villagers' claims that they have been beaten and, in one instance, raped. As one of his informant states, "they offered to pay us to move. Our village rejected the offer. Now the people here see a white man and they get angry." However, in Tarangire the relationship between the indigenous people and the park rangers is very different. There, the two groups maintain friendly relations toward each other.
As Kangwana and Ole Make remark, some park staff becomes part of village life; they understand the villagers' problems and try to help. This improved relationship between indigenous people and park has led to rising expectations and made the indigenous people more interested in working with the park. Another difference between these two parks concerns the role of the private sector. In Serengeti, as I mentioned earlier, the most prominent private investor is RianLabuschange, who proposes to build a hotel to attract tourists and create job opportunities for indigenous people. Rian believes his proposal will both benefit the locals and the wildlife. In Tarangire, many organizations are involved in helping the park and the local indigenous people, for example NGO, CCS of TANAPA, and SCIP.
For instance, the group Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) created a database by interviewing the indigenous people about their problems. The SCIP and CCS raised $93,800 US to fund the provision of clean water, health and education projects, and animal controls. In Serengeti, the Tanzanian government has promised to help the Maasai; however, according to Poole, "the government has built no infrastructure in this region ... to bring water, to bring schools, to bring health care, nobody has kept a single promise to the Maasai". Thus, in Serengeti, only the private sector does anything to benefit the park, whereas in Tarangire both the government and the private sector are involved in efforts to improve conditions for both the indigenous people and the wild animals.
Tarangire and Serengeti National Parks are among the most important assets for wildlife conservation in the world, but both are troubled by serious management problems. I think the Tanzanian government should pay more attention to these problems. In my view, the situation of Serengeti National Park is worse than that of Tarangire. Tanzania's government should mount a serious effort to preserve this park; for example, the government should provide information to the local people and the Maasai about how important this park is for both this generation and the next.
Also, the government should improve the infrastructure for the indigenous people in the vicinity of both parks in order to reduce the problem of illegal activities within the parks. The reason illegal activities occur is that villagers lack adequate resources and that there is conflict between indigenous people and wild animals. Today, many parks, as well as historic sites, are trying to develop their assets in accordance with the concept of sustainability, which holds that development should benefit the local people, other stakeholders, , and the environment. I think Tanzania's government should take this idea into account and apply it in managing these two national parks.
Despite the problems discussed above, Tarangire and Serengeti National Parks sere a vital purpose, both as assets for wildlife conservation and as places where many scientists conduct important research. In their article, Kangwana and Ole show that the local people's relationship with wild animals is complex, with both positive and negative attitudes toward the animals. I think that all the problems facing the parks can be solved if the private sector, NGOs, and the government work together. All of these actors should take serious action to solve these problems; otherwise there will be nothing left for the next generation to enjoy. Generally, one thing is certain; a visit to any of these parks is definitely amazing and will leave one breathless! The close to perfect sceneries will leave you rejuvenated, with a permanent sense of health and tranquility. They are exotic vacation destinations that get one close to nature and loved ones.