Freedom for all without distraction as to race, sex, language or religion. This is a part of preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human rights written in 1948. It was written after two World Wars that carried away millions of lives of people. It was stated in the form of Declaration that countries could ratify this document if they wanted, however; only forty-eight countries signed it. Antiracial and anti-Semitic actions continued to take place even after creation of the Declaration.
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Jean-Paul Sartre was a French philosopher of existentialism of the 20th century, a prominent novelist and politician (Sartre, 2001). One of the key questions in his works was the question of humanism and humane treatment of people in relation to each other. In his work Jean Sartre: Basic Writings written in 2001, he stated his ideas of freedom of choice and strived for freedom. He mentioned that people of black and yellow colors cannot struggle for freedom as they do not understand the real meaning of it (Sartre, 2001). During the discussion with philosopher Naville, he stressed that European philosophers should not write about other races as they did not know the real situation abroad (Sartre, 2001). In this work, the author stated that there was no real human nature in relationships between people (Sartre, 2001).
Sartre wrote the “Preface” to Frantz Fanon`s The Wretched of the Earth. The author stressed on the need of equal rights of all races in the world (Sartre, 1961). He admitted that white race acted inhumane towards black and yellow races. These races had the feeling of offence for constant persecutions of these races and abduction from their homelands. The writer acknowledged that Europeans created a new breed nation – Greko Latin Negroes to have a great influence on black and yellow nations (Sartre, 1961). He pointed out the period of making reservations for Indians by the white race. He named Europeans “the settlers on the third world.” He talked about the white race as of the great mechanism that was able to hold the world in its arms by terrifying other races and leaving them with no abilities to struggle for freedom (p. 5). Sartre stated that the Europeans were born by people of different races before. The idols of black races protected themselves and Europeans tried to destroy them by intruding in their culture and religion (Sartre, 1961). Algeria and Angola were said to be massacred by the white race. The philosopher advised to do away with colonialism as people of black and yellow races could unite and start to fight against the white race (p. 8). Sartre admitted that Fanon described the future in war and violence; he depicted it with an existence of cruel children that had lost their parents. Sartre stressed that Europeans were exploiters, but he also admitted that whether they continued to colonize black and yellow races, the war would begin. Nevertheless, this war would finish with a loss of white race (Sartre, 1961). The author hoped to recover from Europeans’ influence and have better and peaceful future in the world.
Furthermore, Jules Ferry was a famous politician. He was a member of the Republican Party and the 44th Prime Minister of France. When France defeated Germany, the politician created a plan of making a strong empire based on economical causes (Wright, 1970). Jules Ferry became famous because he thought of the Third French Republic and its new Constitution (Wright, 1970). Ferry made a speech before the French National Assembly in 1883. He pointed out the questions of colonialism and the interest of France in colonial expansion. Ferry suggested three ideas of colonial rule of his native country: economic ideas, ideas of civilization, and ideas of politics and patriotism (Andrea & Overfield, 1990). He acknowledged that the main needs of France were export markets and cheap labor force in the area of economics. Having signed free trade treaties in 1860, Ferry stressed that the country`s industry was strong enough, but as opposed to the United States of America that had great markets in the countries of the Third World, it was not competitive enough. The humanitarian and civilization was stated as the second point of colonialism in France (Andrea & Overfield, 1990). The speaker recollected the words of Pelletan, who admitted that Europeans offered violence to other races, but not civilization. Ferry claimed that superior races have more rights than inferior ones. The third point stated by the speaker was the political side of the question. He pointed out that naval warfare could alter the situation in the sea. The Europeans had colonized lands of the Third World because of the necessity to provide states, shelters and ports with proper defense (Andrea & Overfield, 1990). According to Ferry, France noticed that the rivals were superior in the sea and in the development of population. He admitted that France should better seclude in a peaceful way and not interfere into the native land of black and yellow races. The speaker suggested that each nation should be famous for its achievements in an industry, but not in the quantity of the lands it conquered. France was proclaimed to become a great country that had a strong impact on other European countries.
Moreover, there are some differences between Sartre`s “Preface” and Ferry`s speech. Jules Ferry stressed on the future greatness of French nation and spread of language, flag, customs, and traditions of France, as he wanted to make France an empire with export markets in the Third World countries. Sartre called on for rebellion of black and yellow races against European colonizers. The philosopher stressed on the dominant position of colonized races and he also pointed out that whether the Third World War would begin, it would be won by colonized races. In the 19th century, Ferry emphasized greatness of France in the sea and industrial innovation, as at that times these indicators were major ones. In the 20th century, France was highly industrialized country and the top questions of the sixties were reconstruction of the political order in the country, mending of diplomatic fences in order to eliminate the negative effects of two World Wars.
Overall, Jean-Paul Sartre dedicated most of his works to expressionism and defended the right of Resistance and human liberty. During the World War II, he wrote works that were mostly against Germans who were anti-Semites. He named anti-Semitism “a fear of humanity.” Sartre protected colonized nations against colonizers (Judaken, 2006). He called European nation for peace and allocation of free development for black and yellow races.
To conclude, the problem of colonialism still exists. In the 19th century this problem was one of the major ones, because politicians called for the creation of the empire with the help of the Third World countries to get new export markets and, as a result, to gain the leading positions in industrial and economic spheres. In the 20th century, philosophers and scientists stressed on the necessity of looking for appropriate decisions of civilization`s nipping. Nowadays, the issue of equality of men and races is not burning, as European countries and the USA have proclaimed democracy and human treatment to other races in their countries.
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