The creation of the United Nations had to become one of the major steps made by the international community towards stability and peace. Immediately after the Second World War, the UN’s main task was to prevent further risks of military conflicts at the international level. Thus, the main efforts of the United Nations were focused on the prevention, analysis, and peacekeeping in conflicts that emerged between states (UNAC). During the Cold War, the UN tried to follow the non-interference principle and did not seek to interfere in each and every inter-state conflict. The value of state sovereignty has always been the fundamental principle governing all relationships between the UN and its members. After the end of Cold War, the UN underwent a major structural change. The number of intra-state conflicts rapidly increased, and so did the number of peacekeeping initiatives developed by the UN (UN). Since the end of the 1980s, the UN has been focused mainly on conflicts within states.
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The effectiveness of UN’s peacekeeping operations demands further analysis. On the one hand, since its inception, the UN has successfully accomplished dozens of peacekeeping missions, which also enabled peoples from more than 40 countries to participate in free elections and disarm thousands of ex-combatants (United Nations Peacekeeping). The UN has proved to be a cost-efficient peacemaker whose adaptability and flexibility in changing global conditions can hardly be overstated (United Nations Peacekeeping). On the other hand, UN’s failures in Kenya, Rwanda, and several other countries suggest that peacekeeping is not as easy as it may seem. Very often, ethnic conflicts require detailed knowledge of the cultural and political specificity of the countries involved in conflict. In the 1990s, “the general success of earlier missions raised expectations for UN Peacekeeping beyond its capacity to deliver” (UN). Therefore, one of the main challenges facing the UN is setting reasonable expectations and avoiding making false promises to the peoples and countries whose hopes for freedom rely on the United Nations.