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I have undergone internship at ALSA Automotive Engineering, which is a state-of-art facility that provides research, development, prototyping and testing of such car models as BMW, Porches, Ferrari, Range Rovers, and Mercedes (ALSA, 2010). The company’s main facilities concern custom engine upgrades, suspension and wheel upgrade, and tuning modification for the race engines (ALSA, 2010). For these purposes, the company deploys modern technologies and production processes, regarding the improvement of the engine’s horsepower capacity, increasing of the drivetrain loss and provision of the super-like performance (Top Performance, 2012). In order to achieve these goals, ALSA deploys combined innovations of traditional tuning methods with the advanced engine management systems and modifications to the turbochargers (Top Performance, 2012).
The company cooperates with HRE and KW tuning industry partners on the grounds of virtual enterprise and SAP concept performance (ALSA, 2010). ALSA executes a concurrent engineering concept, which is based on the efficient collaboration among technical department employees, such as architect, mechanical, and electrical staff (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
The design’s sustainability requires an architect to fulfill particular objectives, regarding initial and final planning and their effective performance (Mexton & Wormald, 2008; Schneider, 2011). Carrying out the duties of an architect in the concept map, I had to fulfill the following objectives: a) provide correspondence of ecological, economic, functional and technical aspects in order to accomplish common goals of the company and its partners; b) elaborate demand planning in accordance with the project’s framework; c) provide high performance of the core business process.
In order to accomplish these goals, I had to familiarize myself with the company’s fundamentals of database design, optimization of the technologies and cost expanses, to analyze the company’s promotion of the model-based work concept, and to study the company’s contribution to the environment welfare and the economic development.
Organizational Structure. Concurrent Engineering Concept of the Virtual Enterprise
ALSA Automotive Engineering is a facility of the highest level of general development of auto devices, advanced tuning techniques, and scientific field of engineering achievement that is located in Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (ALSA, 2010). The company maintains stable reputation of the highest quality performance of the combination of the greatest brands’ manufacturing and evaluation of the vast array of technologies (ALSA, 2010; Mexton & Wormald, 2008). ALSA takes into account a possibility of the long-term global cycle in the growth of the cars’ manufacturing industry and, therefore, aims its goals concerning the upgrading of the tuning modification servicing for all types of vehicles (ALSA, 2010; Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Thereby, the company’s success is determined by the concept of the model based work, which includes appropriate experience of the qualified team of workers with their clear responsibilities, interfaces, and right on data competence (ALSA, 2010; Mexton & Wormald, 2008). The abovementioned concept has advantages of minimizing risks, as well as energy simulation and sees partnering as an appropriate support (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Therefore, the concurrent engineering concept in a construction setting is based on the interaction between clients, design specialists, and outside partners with the help of the integrated projected groups (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
Executing duties of the architect, I had to analyze why common project goals replace individual objectives of the integrated team’s multidisciplinary experience. The architect has to take into account sustainability aspects of the design and act as an intermediary between mechanical and electrical specialists (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Thereby, my direct duty was to assess collective contribution of their knowledge and effectively deploy it in the implementation of the design process. A sustainability issue concerns a standard requirements consideration in the sufficient implementation of the design project for the effective tuning services performance (Schneider, 2011). These requirements include the following aspects: a) protection and production of the long-term resources with low running costs; b) consideration of the changes in the customer demand sector; c) reliability, durability and serviceability of the proficient tuning services (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
In order to make a sufficient decision about the business process, cost and quality issues correspondence in the end product, an architect and the mechanical and electrical staff should work in the predetermined sequence to ensure that customer’s satisfaction was met and set standards were taken into account (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). This cooperation can be demonstrated with the following concurrent engineering concept map:
The abovementioned concept map helps to determine how the initial individual ideas can be changed with the consideration of correspondence of the design aspects to the set requirements and technical capacity (Miller, 2008). Moreover, the company’s wide range of business activities is aimed at the performance of the services that required outside assistance of its partners (ALSA, 2010). As it has been mentioned before, ASLA cooperates with HRE and KW to provide race team services and manage completion of the mechanical engineering (ASLA, 2010). In order to make this cooperation sufficient and efficient, these companies are engaged into the virtual enterprise (ASLA, 2010). This type of alliance helps these non-competing companies to accomplish specific goals without losing their autonomy and without their integration into a new legal entity (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). The main advantage of this cooperation is based on avoidance of complexity of creating additional management functions, since this alliance requires acting as one toward the third party (customer) and common understanding of the business goals (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
Particular technical and business issues require an architect to be theoretically acknowledged with the dependency of specifications’ qualification and investment incentives (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Since I was engaged into technical business concept issues, I had to define the following content of their dependency: a) evaluation of the team’s competencies, qualifications, and responsibilities in order to develop the essential background for improvement; b) realization of the commonly-agreed incentives due to the financial and durable technical aspects in the scope of concurrent engineering implemented by the defined methods and tools. In theoretical terms, the architect’s planning targets determine effectiveness of the demand planning results (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). For the purpose of these results’ effective access and assessment, the architect has to study their description and develop it in the implementation planning (Schneider, 2011). Thereby, I had to study technical and business management issues, in order to develop their sufficient and efficient performance in the implementation planning.
Production Process and Technologies. Engines’ Modifications for their Capacity Increasing
The company’s set of activities, such as prototyping, weather testing, and building of race engines requires a constant development of the technological features (ASLA, 2010). Therefore, ASLA Automotive Engineering is equipped to perform modifications of engines’ capacity in order to increase engine’s horsepower for the racing cars (Top Performance, 2012). The combination of innovative and traditional tuning methods was sufficient with the modifications to the engine management system and deployment of free flowing exhaust system (Top Performance, 2012). During my internship, I had opportunity to participate in the project, which was focused on the development of the turbochargers for BMW X6M models. The main purpose of the project was to modify compressor wheels on the standard turbos, which allowed the tuners to increase airflow of up to 35 % and to boost pressure up to a 1,8 bar (Top Performance, 2012). In order to understand benefits and efficiency of this project, I had to identify the following issues: a) How can the turbochargers’ modifications help to increase the engine’s horsepower? b) Why are the loss of drivetrain and increasing of torque important for the sufficient engine capacity? c) Is the engine management system safe for environment? d) Why should the exhaust system be further modified and why should it be accomplished?
In physics terms, horsepower is only produced by combustion of fuel, which means it is greater, if more fuel is burnt (Miller, 2008). Since fuel can only be productively burned in the engine’s cylinders, this requires presence of enough air to do this (Miller, 2008). The engine’s ability to produce this air is limited by the vacuum, which is created by the intake stroke of the engine’s piston (Miller, 2008). It was researched, that even in the most efficient design, there can be only 15 psi of absolute pressure, which is considered a maximum absolute pressure between atmosphere and the engine’s piston (Hiller & Coombes, 2006). Therefore, turbochargers are designed for driving more air into the engine, forcing and boosting it into the engine’s cylinders (Miller, 2008). These devices are powered off directly of the engine’s crankshaft (Miller, 2008). During the company’s project implementation, technical performance of the concurrent engineering had to deploy the following modifications to the components of the turbochargers: a) high precision shaving with the aim of reducing weight by cutting bits of excess metal; b) trimming - the main purpose of which is to match the engine’s displacement and volumetric capacity to the size of turbine and compressor; and c) balancing, which is essential in sustaining the required pressure between the turbine, the compressor, and the exhaust system (Gilles, 2010; Top Performance, 2012). These modifications help to increase inertia, the engine’s speed and, consequently, to boost horsepower (Miller, 2008). Therefore, traditional tuning methods together with these modifications enabled ALSA Automotive Engineering to boost car’s power from 555 hp up to 700 hp (Top Performance, 2012).
Moreover, during initial testing, the calculation of the drivetrain showed a tremendous loss of 30%, while torque significantly increased to 945 Nm (Top Performance, 2012). This could be explained by the application of chassis dynamometers that can withstand the high torque levels at the rear wheels (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). The dynamometer is loaded on the engine, while it is running, and helps to reduce the volume of the engine’s piston, which tends to reduce the pressure and the force that acts on it and on the crankshaft (Miller, 2008). This helps to increase torque not only at every power stroke, but during induction, compression and exhaust strokes (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
In order to achieve desired horsepower, the engine management system had to be modified as well, by totally stock and exhaust system with equipment of the straight pipes (Top Performance, 2012). As it was mentioned before, when chassis dynamometers are being equipped, torque increases, causing possibilities of the engine’s over-running (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). Therefore, the engine management systems limit the maximum engine speed and, consequently, prevent unburned fuel from damaging the catalyst (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). Moreover, the engine management system can be referred to as an evaporative emission system, because it controls fuel vapor, which is produced by the fuel, stored in the fuel tanks (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). An electronic throttle control system eliminates the need for the driver to mechanically open and close electronic fuel injection accelerator cable (Miller, 2008). The engine management system’s control over the throttle butterfly’s opening and closing provides the lowest emissions level together with the lowest consumption possible (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). The lowest emissions level possible can also be maintained with the help of limiting operating strategy, incorporated in the engine management system’s self-diagnostic element (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). If the latter detects the fault within the engine management system, it will ensure that the vehicle can still be driven with limited engine horsepower (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). Moreover, the engine management system supports the other electronic control systems’ sufficient performance by sharing information with them (Gilles, 2010). These systems are automatic transmission, anti-lock brake system, and air-conditioning (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
The super -like performance was achieved by using standard headers and a party stock exhaust system (Top Performance, 2012). These systems are designed to limit reversion, which is caused by the exhaust gases flowing back into the combustion chamber at the end of the exhaust stroke (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). This condition interferes with cylinder refill and limits power, further contaminating the fresh air (Giles, 2010). Therefore, these systems should be located as close as possible to the exhaust port to prevent fuel charge and air contamination with the leftover exhaust gases (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
During this tuning stage and initial testing, it was suggested that exhaust system should be modified, considering the requirements of the free flowing exhaust system (Top Performance, 2012). These systems provide almost no back pressure, which is the subject during balancing modifications of the engine, and high horsepower at the expense of torque (Gilles, 2010). However, their design with excessively large diameters can cause poor performance of the low-end and make tuning extremely difficult of a slow speed carburetor (Hiller & Coombes, 2008). Therefore, the traditional tuning methods aimed to increase horsepower to the wheels and headers up to 169 hp will not be sufficiently implemented with the help of the free flowing exhaust system modifications (Top Performance, 2012).
The implementation of these technologies helped to shape employees’ activities, based on common understanding of business and acting as one to achieve the common goals.
Workplace Culture. The Rules and Norms to be Followed
The system, application, and products (SAP) concept is considered a critical success factor for the company’s success (Schneider, 2011). The SAP concept determines high performance of the company’s core business, which includes management of supply chain and customer relationship and consideration of e-business applications (Schneider, 2011). Within the requirements of the virtual enterprise strategic alliance, the SAP includes the effective cooperation between financial management, logistics, production, sales and marketing, as well as research and development branches (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Financial management addresses the issues of investment documentation and strategies, development of the financial boundaries of these strategies, designing of the system’s documentation on the grounds of the affordable expenses, and after-testing analysis in order to determine financial risks (Schneider, 2011). Logistics aspects are defined as getting supply to the place of demand at minimum of cost for the optimized resources (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Production in the automotive engineering industry involves technological solutions to the marketplace demands of the tuning business (Gilles, 2010). Sales and marketing needs challenge the companies in the automotive industry to realize the highest level of the device development, technique and scientific fields’ facilities (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). The research and development branches consider the latest technological development in the modifications of their tuning stages (Schneider, 2011).
ALSA is engaged into concurring engineering concept, the main objective of which is to determine concrete targets of the demand planning (Miller, 2008; ALSA, 2010). As it was seen in Figure 1, the architect determines targets of the demand planning. The planning is customer -oriented, because it analyzes client’s motivations for modifications and formulates the characteristics that the modification must meet as a result of these requirements (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Therefore, the company precisely values customers’ needs, because changing and correction of the planning as well as changing of the modification process are these clients’ risk that ALSA tries to avoid (Top Performance, 2012). Correspondence of these considerations and clients’ requirements not only proves customers’ satisfaction, but improves the construction process, as well.
Therefore, modification tasks have required me as an architect to consider production tasks, which can be classified into the strategic planning and operational aspects. The strategic planning is concerned with the high-level and long-term decision-making process and measurement of the volumes for each market demand (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). The operational activities include the control and monitoring activities, which are based on the evaluation of the production and distribution of the different market demands (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). This should be precisely considered, because tuning services demand for the major German models, which ALSA performs, can be changed with these cars’ production deviations (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
Therefore, professional requirement management includes relevant planners and knowledge makers in order to minimize these risks and stabilize the process (Schneider, 2011).
Power and Status. Centralized and Decentralized Management Aspects
The employees at ALSA Automotive Engineering have specific responsibilities, which are associated with their characteristics (ALSA, 2010). Demand planning requires consideration of the most efficient and sufficient results and, therefore, the performance description depends on these results (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). As it has been mentioned before, different aspects of the company’s performance are considered by the specialists of the different science fields.
As an architect, I was making my decisions on the grounds of the requirements and specifications of the other technical staff personnel. However, some issues concerning marketing strategies had to be considered in the light of the environmental impact and fluency of the technical process. The scope of the activities involved a consideration of the modifications of the free flowing exhaust systems. These exhaust systems were researched to cause slow speed carburetor tuning extremely difficult and possibly can contaminate air or fuel with leftovers exhaust gases (Gilles, 2010). Initial testing helped to identify that these are the causes of the excessively large diameter of the pipes (Top Performance, 2012). Therefore, it was agreed that super-like performance would be achieved by the application of the standard headers and the party stock exhaust system (Top Performance, 2012). Regardless of the market demand, the company decided to focus on the ethical issues of these modifications, considering the environmental impact of their technical process.
As it has been mentioned before, the company maintains its autonomy with the help of virtual enterprise integrity, the main advantage of which is to present possibility to work together, while staying geographically dispersed (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Moreover, the complexity of creating additional management functions is absent within this concept (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). The centralized business concept is established on the definitions of the team’s competencies, experience and qualifications, as well as incentives of the successful realization of activities with the help of the defined methods and tolls of performance (Schneider, 2011). However, the values creation as an important level of the long-term success achievements requires an outline of the particular strategic and structural dimensions (Schneider, 2011). Therefore, values activities are internally reshaped regarding the centralized management system (Schneider, 2011). This reshaping helps the company to remain competitive outside its country’s borders, because its production and development fields are decentralized (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). This type of decentralized centralization is effective in the light of the virtual enterprise concept, because various activities are incorporated in different counties by different companies (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Moreover, decentralization helps to protect the company from deviation in the exchange rates, because there is a high level of localization in planning (Schneider, 2011). ALSA Automotive Engineering uses this strategy to gain benefits from differences in cost and production factors and takes the advantages of the local supplies (ALSA, 2010).
Therefore, the company’s decision to carry out modifications and tuning stages in the local markets is considered to be wise, because customers and marketplace’s tendency to purchase the vehicles, which were modified locally, is taken into account (ALSA, 2010; Top Performance, 2012). This decision is dictated by the stiff competition in the automotive industry (Schneider, 2011). Therefore, the company focuses its attention on the needs of the local customers, when tuning specifically designed models of the major German vehicles (Mexton & Wormald, 2008; ALSA, 2010). The single-minded strategy is not proved to be effective in the light of abovementioned aspects, because the involvement of multidisciplinary fields in planning and implementation require precise consideration of all concerned issues (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
Therefore, the model -based work determines integrated aspects of the team’s cooperation as a replacement of the individual ideas, which are combined into the overall effective interpretation of the multidisciplinary experience (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). This experience is considered sufficient to the changing market demands, because it helps to focus decision-making process on the achievement of the positive results. Moreover, prompting the development of the subsidiaries and assigning certain responsibilities to them in accordance with their respective areas of expertise is considered important for competitive advantages (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
Ethical issues. Effect of the Values and Principles
Automotive engineering is viewed as experimental process, because particular products present some potential danger (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Monitoring is considered as an essential way to control negative and positive outcomes of the modification process (Gilles, 2010). Therefore, ALSA Automotive Engineering considers the following ethical issues of the engine’s design:
1. Dependant design and modification aspects. There are pre-existing, emergent and technical aspects. During the tuning stage of the turbochargers modifications, it was researched that the horsepower level can be increased with the shaving, trimming and balancing of the turbochargers components (Top Performance, 2012). The engine’s capacity could not be increased with the most efficient design, because the maximum pressure is limited by its vacuum (Miller, 2008). The emergent aspects of these modifications consider their performance in the state-of-art facility, which is believed to be the highest level of device development, and advances in technique and scientific fields (Gilles, 2010). The technical aspects consider additional design specifications, which are based on torque increasing and drivetrain loss (Top Performance, 2012). It was researched that the creation of torque during strokes that reduce the pressure, which acts on the engine’s piston, can develop engines overrunning (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
2. Robustness of the design and modification process. It was researched that traditional tuning methods combined with the innovative approach, which are based on the technological development, help to increase horsepower to the desired level of 700 hp (Top Performance, 2012). Moreover, the equipment of the standard headers helped to retain the same diameter of the pipes of the exhaust system and avoid omitting of the excess emissions level (Top Performance, 2012).
3. Competence of the technical and management staff. While executing the duties of an architect, I had to determine planning objects, to consider aesthetic issues, and to develop implementation planning. However, the mechanical and electric staff expertise helped me to achieve the target results of the demand planning by setting up a model-based 3D vision, which determined possible energy simulation and risks assessment.
4. Technical design modifications. Straight pipes replaced the original catalytic converters in the engine management system (Top Performance, 2012). This was due to the prevention of the engine speed reduction in order to minimize its overrun and avoid unburned fuel to damage the catalyst (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
5. Automotive engineering process testing. During the first tuning stage, it was defined that the modifications to the turbochargers’ components, the engine management system, and the exhaust system helped to increase horsepower and maintain emissions at the required level (Top Performance, 2012). Regardless of torque increasing, it entails contamination by leftover combustion gases, the modifications to the self-diagnostic element of the engine management system limits the engines power output and maintains the lowest emission level possible in the cases of the engine management system malfunction (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
6. Technical and operating staff communications. The additional considerations should be made after the tuning stage testing. The architect has to measure positive results of the implemented modifications and translate them into correspondence with the physical and engineering terms (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Technological development is not a mandatory influence decision-making process during demand planning and consequent implementation planning (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). The concept of the model-based work helped to determine the effectiveness of the modifications’ methods and tools and assess them in the light of environmental impact and customers’ satisfaction (ALSA, 2010; Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
7. Addressing mistakes after the implementation of the modifications within the tuning stage. After the testing of the implemented modification, my task was to determine the consequent demand planning strategies in order to address emerged errors. Such issues as environment impact and customers’ satisfaction had a major influence on the decision-making process of the subsequent project’s planning. Traditional tuning methods were deployed during BMW X6M testing, and it was defined that the free flowing exhaust system needs further modifications (Top Performance, 2012). This matter is relevant in the light of technological and engineering improvements, because the traditional diameter of the exhaust pipes increases exhaust gases flow back into the combustion chamber (Gilles, 2010). It was defined that newly modified components of the free flowing exhaust systems should be located as close as possible to the exhaust port (Top Performance, 2012; Gilles, 2010).
Therefore, values and principles of the decision-making process of demand planning and implementation planning directly depend on the technical and engineering requirements and, therefore, shape this process of brain-storming and mind-mapping in order to optimize efficient and proficient results (Mexton & Coombes, 2008).
Priorities and Values of Financial Issues. Strategies and Criteria of Money
Strategies and criteria of money are determined by five stages of the quality financial management (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). These stages consider effective planning and implementing priorities and define sufficient values of the results. Therefore, model-based management within the concurrent engineering concept includes the following strategic steps of the financial risks minimization:
Stage 1. The money statement. The automotive industry rapid change requires scrutiny forecasting of the marketplace trading direction (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). As an architect of the automotive engineering company, I had to manage design and development within the requirements of the foreseen types of trading systems. The technological development requires elaboration of the marketing strategies of tuning business in the direction of the advanced modifications (Schneider, 2011).
Stage 2. The investment strategy. The quantative research methods are applied in order to identify requirements of the business management, regarding technological progress (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). Thereby, I had to apply these methods to determine the sufficient and proficient engine’s modifications. The turbochargers were defined to require additional modification of the engine management system and the exhaust system (Top Performance, 2012). Prototyping of the modeling software with the help of 3D visualization helped to determine efficiency and sufficiency of the chosen strategies of the demand planning (Mexton & Wormald, 2008). These strategies were performed within the sound engineering on the grounds of aesthetic aspects (Mexton & Wormald, 2008).
Stage 3. Back test. It is the most crucial stage of the implementation planning. This stage required me to gather technical and engineering data on the modifications of the turbochargers components, the exhaust system, and the engine management system. Moreover, I had to define limitations of these modifications of the grounds of the project’s complexity and cost. Therefore, the developed boundaries of the strategies included, “modifications of particular systems within this tuning stage,” were reported during texting (Top Performance, 2012, p. 41). The changed and corrected 3D visualization helped to determine proficiency and efficiency of the project’s modifications.
Stage 4. Testing implementation. This stage required me to plan and document technical specifications of the chosen modifications and designs of the system’s architecture. I had to research strategies of the modifications on the turbochargers, such as shaving, balancing, and trimming; to consider traditional tuning methods and innovative incentives for the engine management system’s modifications; and to consider a party stock exhaust system as an alternative to achieve super-like performance. When initial modifications testing had taken place, I had to document results of the tuning stage, which were favorable for increasing of the engine’s capacity.
Stage 5. Management of the modifications portfolio and risks. Performance and the risks processing, which are based on the SAP and concurrent engineering concepts, had to be planned ahead (Mexton & Wormald, 2008; Schneider, 2011). Peculiarities of the modifications decision-making process and implementation had an effect on the measurement of these risks. The after-control analysis helped to determine sufficiency and efficiency of the chosen modifications to the engine management system, exhaust system, and the turbochargers (Top Performance, 2012). The cases of variation were determined on the grounds of proficient operational process of the implemented modifications (Top Performance, 2012). The engine managements system was defined to share information with other electronic control systems, such as automatic transmission and air-conditioning, and therefore, helps the exhaust system to maintain the lowest level of emissions possible (Hiller & Coombes, 2008; Top Performance, 2012). Consequently, the exhaust system produces less emissions levels on the grounds of the turbochargers’ modifications and dynamometer loading of the engine to reduce its overrun (Gilles, 2010; Top Performance, 2012). Continuous improvement engages the subsequent stage of the free flowing system modifications and considers its appropriate equipment (Hiller & Coombes, 2008; Top Performance, 2012).
Pricing of the abovementioned tuning stage starts at $ 16,950 US dollars (Top Performance, 2012). This cost takes into account that all the modifications will be performed at ALSA’s state-of-art facility in Abu Dhabi (Top Performance, 2012).
The Environment. The External Factors that Affect ALSA’s Activities and Strategies
ALSA’s activities are affected by the external factors, such as technological changes, marketplace dynamics, and economic trends (Mexton & Wormald, 2008; ALSA, 2010).
Technological changes cover advanced improvements in the components of the engine that help to retain the lowest emissions level possible and achieve the vehicles super-like performance (JSAE, 2008). It was researched that fuel consumption and exhaust gas leftover are the causes of the increasing level of NOx and PM (JSAE, 2008). In order to increase pressure in the engine, the thinner engine components and thin-walled casing were applied for downsizing and weight reduction of the engine (JSAE, 2008). However, physicians and engineers claim that even the most efficient engine design does not provide the pressure greater than maximum 15 psi of absolute pressure (Miller, 2008). Therefore, this weight reduction is a subject to the engine’s piston concentration and redistribution of fuel in the inner side of the engine’s bottleneck (JSAE, 2008). The shape of this inner side is considered to be reduced; however, ALSA’s engineers and technicians consider shaving, trimming, and balancing more effective for this purpose (Gilles, 2010; Top Performance, 2012).
The effective implementation of computer simulation on the vehicles is considered the main option to shorten its development period (JSAE, 2008). However, this requires enormous calculations of the number of specifications, which are needed for the creation of the robust design (JSAE, 2008). ALSA’s technical staff considered the application of the dynamometer financially efficient and technically sufficient during measurements of the results of the tuning stage modifications (Top Performance, 2012). This tool appeared to be effective during calculations of the level of torque and drivetrain loss, which were enough to analyze the effectiveness of the chosen modifications to the turbochargers (Hiller & Coombes, 2008; Top Performance, 2012).
Recent researchers considered optimization of the exhaust port shape in order to maintain the lowest possible level of emissions (JSAE, 2008). ALSA’s implementation planning tested that the best way to reduce emissions would be to locate the exhaust port closer to the free flowing exhaust systems (Gilles, 2010; Top Performance, 2012).
In the recent years, fly-by-wire technologies considerably assisted the driver with fluent performance of the steering accelerator and brake actions, converting them into electronic signals that input control over the vehicle (JSAE, 2008). ALSA’s technical performance considered equipment of the engine management system with a self-diagnostic element that will detect the fault within the system and coordinate it as a limiting operating strategy (Hiller & Coombes, 2008; Top Performance, 2012). This action will ensure that the vehicle can still be driven safely while maintaining the lowest emissions level possible in the conditions of the engine’s malfunction (Hiller & Coombes, 2008).
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