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Human sexuality occupies a significant part of everyone’s life, regardless of the fact whether one is a man or a woman, young or old, Japanese or American. Human sexuality goes beyond all of these boundaries and partly defines who we are and what we do. Scholarly writing and research have paid much attention to this aspect of our life (Weiner, 2013). Contraception is one of the main concepts that affect human sexuality. Contraception refers to various methods of birth control among which are pills, injections, diaphragm, and condoms. The present case analyzes the approach to human sexuality and the manner in which ethical standards guide professional behavior.
Scenario 1: Joanne and Arthur
The case of Joanne and Arthur reflects the issue of contraception which is closely related to the instinct theory of motivation. Individuals who are interested in contraceptives are willing to engage in human sexuality practices such as sex. The roots of the instinct theory lie within the Darwin’s theory of evolution. An instinct, just like an aspect of sexual behavior, is not learned. This type of behavior passes practically unchanged from a generation to another generation. However, humans’ approach to sexual behavior is quite different from that of animals. The behaviors are derived from motivation. According to the case study, the two cannot live without having the desire to have sex since they have been in a relationship for quite some time. The desire to have sex stems from human instincts. Individuals are not taught to have sex. The behavior is instinctual and reproductive. This is where contraceptives play their role, as the partners are not ready to bear children.
Numerous studies have proven contraception is an effective approach to human sexuality as affirmed by Weiner, (2013). Psychologists have also agreed with the concept of human sexuality. In this, it is apparent that psychology plays an important role in developing instincts. Psychologists state that during the 1870s instincts were utilized to reflect repeated behavior. Research has since been established, leading to discovery and categorization of 4,000 human instincts (Weiner, 2013). The word instinct is related to a motivational force by Freudian psychoanalysts. The desire to use contraceptives, according to the case study, stems from a motivational force (Weiner, 2013).
Abraham Maslow, in his ‘hierarchy of needs’ established that human beings cannot override instincts (Weiner, 2013). Maslow stated that persons have overridden their instincts in order to fulfill their motivational needs. Scientific researchers believe the cause of motivation to be genetic or biological. The actions of individuals are derived from motivations; thus considered instincts. It is through this that humans develop instincts, the desire for sex is one of such, which bears the need to choose an appropriate contraceptive.
There is a vast amount of evidence as well as examples that explain the instinct theory. For instance, a mother would not let her baby cry the whole night. She would provide comfort until the baby becomes calm or falls asleep. In this case, the instincts of the mother stimulate her to provide comfort to the baby. On this level, the issue presented in the case study is not different. The two partners are willing to look for the best suiting contraceptive, which is ultimately driven by their instincts. In this, the two cannot override the motivation to prevent unwanted pregnancies.
There are a set of criteria that are drawn from psychology and instinctual behavior. This means that there are behaviors which are motivated through instincts. The characteristics of such behaviors are that they are irresistible, automatic, unmodifiable, triggered by an occurrence in the environment, they happen at some point in development and in each member species, and do not require training. This concept can be related to the desire for sex. The desire occurs as a result of instincts and can fit the above-mentioned characteristics. If individuals fail to use contraceptives, pregnancy will be an automatic result. For one to get pregnant, sexual activity must occur; thus the trait that instincts occur at some point in life.
There are numerous evidence-based articles that can be related to the case study. Among them is an article by Lopez et al., (2008) which analyzes a number of contraceptives and some of the most common methods. The main idea of the article is contraception. The article compares the effectiveness of different contraceptive methods in relation to cycle control, safety, and compliance of the methods. The article relied on women in reproductive age who were using contraceptives as a method of birth control. Researchers collected data by an analytic method. It used 11 randomized control trials in order to obtain effective and reliable results. Outcome measures were weighed through contraceptive effectiveness, discontinuation, cycle control, compliance, and safety among the participants. The results indicated that 90% of women used a certain method of contraceptives. The study also noted that the eligibility criterion for the study was met. Few were conversant with the vaginal ring while the rest used the oral contraceptive.
The main topic of the second evidence-based article is contraception as well. The article identifies the manner in which adolescents use contraceptives. The article used data from a review of the MEDLINE articles between the years 1980 and 1999 (Davtyan, 2000). The search was conducted through clinical studies, review articles, and editorials. The obtained data was used to formulate a case study that depicted the increased incidence of contraceptive use by adolescents. The article established that adolescents, too, have contraceptive needs. Data from the national survey of family growth established that 37% of adolescents used condoms as a form of control birth (Davtyan, 2000).
The reviewed articles depict that contraception is a component of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases as well as unwanted pregnancies. The articles discuss the issue of contraceptives and some of the perceived side effects. They also depict that women are connected to family planning services. However, they do not explain the manner in which men could participate in the issue. In short, the articles raise concern on family planning and make efforts to meet the national goal of contraceptive counseling.
Ethical standards are important as they act as a guide to professional behavior. An example of an ethical standard is loyalty. The case study focuses on the moment in which Joanne and Arthur had to decide on the most effective method of contraception. The two were loyal to each other because they never had sexual relationships with other people after building their relationship. Loyalty is an important ethical standard because it enables one to achieve goals in a professional setting (Johnson, 2002). Loyal leaders provide independent judgment, respect all information, and are true to themselves and other people.
Human sexuality is one of the topics that are present in many debates due to its prevalence in human life. People in the modern age are using contraceptives in order not to be forced to raise unwanted children. Human sexuality and contraceptives can be related to psychology it is based on the fundamental concepts explored in this science. The approach of human sexuality can be used to derive ethical standards in a professional setting.