Benito Mussolini who lived between 1883 and 1945 started his life politically as a socialist and in the year 1912 and worked as an editor of Avanti, one of the leading socialist newspapers. During the Great War, Benito was barred from the Socialist Party because he advocated for Italy's entrance into the existing battle (Heywood 2000, 78). That is when he organized a Fascist Party in the event of war. In the pursuit of exploiting fears of communism and labor unrest, Mussolini gained many followers in his party among war veterans as well as the middle class (Griffin 2004, 185). In 1922, Mussolini organized a March on Rome in an attempt to bring down the then current government. He instilled fear in King Victor Emmanuel because of the prospects of an emergence of civil war, who later appointed him as the prime minister (Alexander 2004, 28). Fascism at the time could not be understood of its practical manifestations literally as a party organization, as a discipline, or as a system of education. It was not literally looked at as a way of conceiving life in general in a spiritualized way (Welch 2000, 76).
Adolph Hitler's Nazis in general were certainly more prolific of the Fascist ideals and practiced fascism in respective states. Seeds of Fascism, however, started in Italy. It was named "Fascism is reaction," said Mussolini (Heywood 2000, 78), the author of the book "Doctrine of Fascism." Mussolini forged the concept of Fascism in post-World War I period in Europe (Peter 2002, 146). The concept thrived in national aspirations of European (Griffin 2004, 185) peoples nations without states (Knight 2003, 72) and people assigned to political entities (Welch 2000, 76) with little regard for culture or custom that crushed after World War I. The level of humiliation imposed by the people who won the Great War (Rao 2006, 215), coupled with the hard economic times resulting from the great economic Depression was a major course of anger and bitterness in the people who fell for Mussolini's idea in solace of their helplessness (Alexander 2004, 28). The people's anger frequently found outlets in the formation of the fascist as an ideology (Heywood 2000, 78) that asserted not just the relevance of the nation (Welch 2000, 76), but also its unquestionable predestined role and superiority in history.
The doctrine of fascism introduced a new perception of the world where values of individuality and democracy were replaced by groupings and fascists ideals. Man wanted to live a life of momentary pleasure and selfish ideals but a common moral law subjugated it (Griffin 2004, 185). The law bound together individuals purposed for a mission and demanded that they undergo a denial process of self and sacrifice their private interests in order to realize the completion of their spiritual existence (Knight 2003, 72). In essence, the concept of Fascism attempted to create a nation where its citizens did not adhere to individuality. The concept created instruments to fight individualism that the state manipulated, leading to a compromise of democracy (Peter 2002, 146). Fascism did all these under the guise of the concept of spirituality (Welch 2000, 76) introduced in conjunction with the spirit of fascism. The cheerless, hopeless, and forgotten lot among the population within the nation was more susceptible and accepted the Fascism doctrine faster (Heywood 2000, 78).
Buy The basis of Italian fascism is the rejection of individualism and democracy essay paper online
Mussolini knew that once individualism was out of people conceptions and the spirit of togetherness was achieved, he would make one of the strongest army in the region that would fight to win (Rao 2006, 215). He put the people who accepted his ideology into uniforms and incorporated them into equally organized movement with the concept of Fascism (Knight 2003, 72) making them feel as if they truly belonged to something great. In reality they lived in denial is pursuit of democracy that they deemed as lacking in the system. They had a feeling of being greater and holding to something valuable than their individual lives (Griffin 2004, 185) therefore promoted the group policy and declined the aspect of individualism in them. The concept also emphasized the myth of a racial or national rebirth after a period of deconstruction or decline (Heywood 2000, 78).
In addition to individualism, the concept introduced a spiritual revolution to the people claiming to be against signs of moral decay (Welch 2000, 76) for instance, materialism and individualism.
Its nature was merely to obstruct individuals from fighting for self and competing for material gain and join groups perceived as morally upright and the right direction of human destiny (Peter 2002, 146). The doctrine formed a symbiotic relationship (Heywood 2000, 78) between the state and the individual to avoid separating the two and make the union stronger. The Fascist state was in total control of the individual since without the state an individual was deemed as merely not truly existing. From the concepts argument, the state was absolute and not a thing could challenge its decision (Knight 2003, 72).
Mussolini's concept was introduced in contrast to Marxian Socialism. According to Mussolini's Fascism, the ideals of Marx on socialism depicted historical materialism. Through Marxian Socialism (Peter 2002, 146), the history of human civilization (Knight 2003, 72) comes out only as a struggle of interests according to Mussolini's argument. He described Marx's concept as a struggle between social groups, which were different, almost as if it were only economic processes composing humanity (Rao 2006, 215). The Fascist totally disagreed with Marx's concept, glorifying and romanticizes heroes regarding great visions of grandeur (Heywood 2000, 78) not only the associations with economic motives.
Fascism doctrine also put across the argument that class struggles (Welch 2000, 76) are not primary termed as agents of social change like the case of Marx socialism. The Doctrine of Fascism conversely attacked democracies in a practical nature regarding the concepts as misleading and out of human favor (Griffin 2004, 185). Its whole concept was in argument that a society could not be ruled successfully through a majority vote (Knight 2003, 72). In reality, the fascist world was not material in nature as per a human perception as it appears on the surface. It was totally against the explanation that man is a separated individual from all others and can stand by himself (Rao 2006, 215). The man in Fascism concept is an individual whose fatherland has a moral law to bind them together in respective generations (Heywood 2000, 78).
Like every political conception, the concept of Fascism is both thought and practice. It is action that a doctrine is immanent and in which, arises out of a given historical forces systems. Every concept of the State is fundamentally a life concept (Griffin 2004, 185). Fascism therefore correlated to contingencies of space and time but also include ideal content that makes it an expression of truth in the history of thought (Rao 2006, 215). Therefore, the expressions of Fascism for instance system of education, party organization, and discipline can only be properly understood when considered relating to its general attitude of humans toward life (Welch 2000, 76).
From the basis of Italian fascism, there are elements portraying rejection of individualism and democracy. Fascism demands a human being to be very active as well as engage in action incorporating all his energies (Griffin 2004, 185). The aspects of fascism shows man as wanting to be resolutely aware of the many difficulties surrounding him and his readiness to face them. The fascist idea also conceives life as a real struggle in which man is behooved to win himself a worthy place in reality. First, it gives a person an alternative to fit him morally, physically and intellectually to win the worthy place (Welch 2000, 76).
The Fascist as a concept of life is somewhat religious in nature. The concept views man in his immanent relation and a subject of a higher law. In this sense, it denies him the spirit of individuality necessary within a society (Knight 2003, 72). A quote from the fascism concept reads "Those who do not perceive anything beyond opportunistic considerations within the abject religious policy of the actual Fascist regime, do not realize that Fascism is merely not a system of government only but also ranks above all human system of thought (Alexander 2004, 28)." In the Fascist conception, man is man by virtue of the spiritual process that he contributes as a family member, the nation, the social group, and in function of history that all nations bring in their respective contribution (Peter 2002, 146).
Hence, the great value of records in tradition, in customs, in language, in the rules of social life and outside history of man is a nonentity. The concept therefore opposes individualistic abstractions that were a basis of materialism in the eighteenth century. It also opposed Jacobinistic innovations and utopias that led man (Peter 2002, 146). Fascism also does not ascribe to possibility of "happiness" on earth. Meaning that it denies a person a chance of democracy and pleasure in individualistic acts. This is as per the conceptions of the literature of economists in the XVIII century (Knight 2003, 72). The concept therefore totally rejects the theological notion in humans that some time in future, the human family will enjoy a final settlement and do away with all its difficulties (Rao 2006, 215). In politics, Fascism concept aims at realism. In practice, the concept desires to only deal with the problems that are the spontaneous product of human historic conditions and that find or suggest own solutions (Welch 2000, 76).
The concept of fascism draws everything against individualism. The Fascist concept is directly in favor of the State and it only considers an individual who coincides with the State (Alexander 2004, 28). It also opposes classical Liberalism that arose from the necessity of humans reacting against situations of absolutism that concluded its main historical purpose when the State transformed into the will and conscience of the people (Heywood 2000, 78). Liberalism denied the general State in the particular individual interest with Fascism reaffirming the State as the true individual reality (Knight 2003, 72). According to the concept, if liberty was to be the characteristic of the real man, and not really of that conceptual puppet visualized by individualistic Liberalism, the concept of Fascism was for liberty (Griffin 2004, 185). This liberty however could be a real thing including the individual liberty within the State and the State liberty. Therefore, for the concept of Fascism, everything is directly from the State, and there is nothing individualistic. In this sense, the Fascism concept is totalitarian with the State synthesizing unity of all values, developing, interpreting, and giving strength to the life of its people (Welch 2000, 76).
Outside the State, fascism argues that there can be neither groups (syndicates, associations, political parties, classes) nor individuals. Therefore, in reality Fascism objects that idea of Socialism that confines the movement within the class struggle in history and ignores the classes' unity established in one moral reality and economy of the State (Alexander 2004, 28). Within the fascism concept, Individuals form classes depending on their similarity in interests and values (Knight 2003, 72). The individuals form syndicates depending on their differentiated economic activities as per these interests. However, above all, they have to form the State that is not to be numerically thought as the total of individuals that form the majority of a state (Heywood 2000, 78).
Consequently, Fascism opposes Democracy that equates the state to the majority and lowers it to the level of the respective majority. However, it is the purest democracy form if the nation conception is as it should be, that is, qualitatively and not quantitatively. Fascists led to the struggle of race and the nation as important in society. This opposed the communist's ideas of class struggle (Welch 2000, 76). To the fascist view, the nation details as a single organic entity that binds people together through the introduction of their ancestry and acts as a natural unifying force (Knight 2003, 72). Fascism seeks to solve political, economic, and social problems by bringing in reality a millenarian national rebirth. Fascism also promotes cults of unity, purity and strength. Mussolini in 1922 stated that, "For us the state is not just a mere territory but something very spiritual. A state is great when it literally translates into a force of reality, that is, the force of its spirit (Alexander 2004, 28)."
Fascism also neglected democracy as a concept. Italian fascists accepted expansionist imperialism as necessary (Griffin 2004, 185). This in turn denied the nation its democracy to rule over its people peacefully. The Italian Encyclopedia statement read, "For Fascism concept, the growth of an empire, that is, the expansion of the state, is an important manifestation of vitality, also an opposite sign of its decadence (Alexander 2004, 28)." In this case, most Nazis promoted the spirit of territorial expansion that would contribute to "living space" to the nation. Fascists literally opposed pacifism and instilled a belief that a nation should hold a warrior mentality (Peter 2002, 146). Benito Mussolini argued of war as a concept idealistically as the sole source of masculine pride, and was literally against pacifism (Welch 2000, 76). In its application, the war supported by fascism brings up tension in human energies and ads to the stamp of nobility in people's lives therefore denying them a democratic state and peace in their country (Knight 2003, 72).
Fascism supports the anti-pacifist struggle in individual facilitating an unstable state of democracy and the will to live peacefully. From statements in the fascist's ideals, "war is to man as maternity is to woman." Many fascist movements that emerged from the concept supported the creation of totalitarian nation states (Peter 2002, 146). The Doctrine states: "The conception according to fascists of the State is equally all-embracing; outside of this conception, no spiritual or human values can exist (Heywood 2000, 78). Thus understood, the concept is totalitarian, and the State is what synthesizes and includes all values."
After Socialism, Fascism opposes the concepts of democratic ideologies and totally rejects them in their theoretical premises as well as in their applications including their practical manifestations. Fascism denies the argument that the majority can rule human societies. It also denies that the majority governs through periodical consultation. From the concept, there is an affirmation of the fruitful, irremediable, and beneficial inequality of men, who can never be up to level for instance in their extrinsic and mechanical fact as universal suffrage (Welch 2000, 76).
Fascist conception of life stresses takes the Anti-individualistic approach showing the importance of the State as well as accepting the individuals only if the coherent interests coincide with the State that stands for the universal and conscience will of man (Peter 2002, 146). The rights of the State in fascism express the real essence of non-individualism. Fascism is opposed to Socialism to which (Griffin 2004, 185) unity within the State is unknown. In its inception it develops nothing else than a class of struggle. Fascism also opposed trade unionism one of the most used class weapon in history (Rao 2006, 215). However, when within the orbit of the State (Heywood 2000, 78), Fascism dearly recognizes the needs that gave rise to aspects of socialism as well as trade unionism (Welch 2000, 76), giving them weight in the corporative or guild system where there is harmonization and coordination of divergent interests of respective individuals (Knight 2003, 72).
The concept of fascism introduced a spirit of grouping. The state practices groupings of individuals according to their interests thereby forming classes. In this sense, it is a concept that rekindles a non-individualistic society with groups dominating as the ideal concepts. Individuals as per the concept form trade unions with organizations according to their economic activities that they engage in (Griffin 2004, 185).
The Fascist State, as a more powerful personality expression, is a force, but literally a spiritual one. It brings about the manifestations of the intellectual and moral life of man. Its functions therefore cannot be limited to enforcing order or even keeping the peace as the argument by the liberal doctrine (Welch 2000, 76). Fascism described its functions as something beyond the obvious. It argues it to be a mechanical device used in defining the sphere where individual has access to rights and values. To the regime, the Fascist State is an acceptable rule and standard of conduct as well as a discipline of the collective person. In its conception, it allows the will no less than that of an intellect (Griffin 2004, 185). It stands for a valued principle that becomes the motive of man within a civilized society, dwelling in the heart of the man and sinking deep into his personality.
Fascism, therefore, is not only a lawgiver or a founder of individual institutions, but it is also an educator and equally a promoter of human spiritual life (Welch 2000, 76). Its aim is to refashion not only the forms of life in humans but also their content including man, his faith and his character (Peter 2002, 146). To achieve its main purpose, this concept enforces discipline and equally uses authority, denying man any sense of democracy and individuality as it enters into the soul and rules with undisputed sway (Heywood 2000, 78).
Fascism desired to achieve the strength of the State rather than the individual enhancing its strength and organic status based on foundations of support. The Fascist State claimed to rule in the nation's economic field as well as others (Peter 2002, 146). It made its action felt over and above the breadth and the length of the country by encouraging its social, corporative, and educational institutions rather than individualistic nature of humans. It also was in support of the economic, political and spiritual forces of the overall nation in organizations (Heywood 2000, 78) based in their respective associations (Griffin 2004, 185).
Democracy feigned in the introduction of fascism in the Italian dynasty. The Fascist State (Welch 2000, 76) expressed its will to exercise power and equally command its populace in the entire regime. The Roman tradition was in turn embodied in a strength conception based on using the command rule (Peter 2002, 146). Imperial power, as per the understanding by the Fascist doctrine (Griffin 2004, 185), was not territorial, military or commercial (Alexander 2004, 28), it was ethical and spiritual. This directed power of control over the nation and drained the element of democracy.
In conclusion, the Doctrine of Fascism by Mussolini (Heywood 2000, 78) was an influential concept and still holds strong even up to date. It literally forced out aspects of democracy and individualism that were part of governance in the early 18th century and extended to the world war period up to now (Griffin 2004, 185). The concept came at a time when the Italians were angry of exploitation and living in a class system therefore acting as a solace to the community (Peter 2002, 146). The attractive ideals introduced in Mussolini's concept drew the majority to accept it as the redeemer of all times and a new revolution for change. Throughout the 19th century, the concept caused many deaths in the events of engaging in wars (Rao 2006, 215). Fascism thrived not only as a form of government but also as a manipulations system within Italy (Knight 2003, 72). It literally advocated against the two broad concepts of individualism and democracy transforming the country's populace into mindless utensils that could only respect and bind their loyalty to the state (Peter 2002, 146). It lessened individual human life values as well as achievements in the context of groupings. By creating facades of the supremacy of the state, Fascism (Heywood 2000, 78) was able to generate and create an atmosphere where the masses of common folk (Welch 2000, 76) voluntarily joined in heroic or relatively spiritual missions. In its drive to power (Griffin 2004, 185), the concept of fascism denied individual their very existence in the situations outside the state. Peace and tranquility (Heywood 2000, 78) were not available options in the Fascism ideology as greed and wars compromised individuality and democracy (Alexander 2004, 28).