The World Health Organization defines interpersonal violence as the intentional employment of the physical power or force, actual or threatened, against a person, oneself or a community or group that has a high probability of causing or causes psychological harm, injury, death, deprivation or mal-development (Rosenberg et al., p. 756). The mode or nature of violence may be sexual, physical, or psychological, and besides, may entail neglect and deprivation. The actions of the interpersonal violence are categorized into community and family violence. Family violence is classified into child abuse, domestic violence or intimate partner violence; and abuse of older persons (Rosenberg et al., p. 756). On the other hand, community abuse includes violence in various institutions including workplaces, care facilities, schools and jails. Youth violence is also termed as an example of community violence (Rosenberg et al., p. 756).
One of the major issues of interpersonal violence is deaths, which result from the same. The estimates from global burden of disease revealed that in the year 2001, about 1.6 million persons died due to violence, 34 percent of which were caused by interpersonal violence (Rosenberg et al., p. 757). According to the estimates, death rates were high in developing nations in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa and low in Western Pacific, East Asia and some nation in North Africa. In terms of sex and age, homicides were high amongst males aged between 15 to 29 years compared to female. In general, the ratio of male to female in regard to deaths was recorded to be 3.4:1, meaning that male experienced a high death rate compared to female as a result of interpersonal violence (Rosenberg et al., p. 757). According to studies, these deaths occur in jails as a result of community violence, and suicide as a result of intimate partner violence.
Apparently, interpersonal violence is a great threat to the society and necessary measures have to be taken in order to mitigate the same. In the United States, estimates revealed that the cost of interpersonal violence reach 3.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (World Health Organization, 2012). In Wales and England, costs as a result of violence encompassing sexual assault, injuries, and homicides amount to about 40.2 billion U.S. dollars every year (World Health Organization, 2012).