Ethical Implications of Businesses Polluting in a Third World Country
Ethically the optimal level of pollution is the point at which the marginal benefit line intersects the marginal costs line on a graph of marginal benefits and marginal abatement costs. Kernohan (2012) says that people who are not benefiting from the activities of businesses causing pollution in third world countries suffer from the burdens of the harms caused by the pollution. The social optimum approach does not provide compensation to the innocent victims of pollution.
The ethical implications of businesses polluting in third world countries also concern issues of moral standing. Kernohan (2012) noted that the ethically optimal level of pollution considers only the interests of those in a particular market. This is due to the interests of people outside the market in distant countries or in the far future and the interests of living beings incapable of market transactions are not represented properly in the calculation of socially optimal level of pollution in third world countries.
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Another ethical implication is how to best to balance economic development and protection of human health and the environment in developing countries. Resnik (2012) says that economic development brought about by businesses in third world countries is important in promoting human health, reducing poverty and avoiding famine. However business activities related to transportation, mining, industry and agriculture produce pollution. This implies that there is a need to find the right balance of environmental and public health protection and economic growth. The ethical issue here is to understand the potential benefits and risks for public health associated with businesses polluting in developing countries.
Justice is another ethical issue related to businesses polluting in third world countries. Resnik (2012) says that urban residents are exposed to higher levels of ozone than residents of rural areas. The ethical question that should be addressed is whether these differences are fair and if not what should be done to address them. Some businesses in third world countries may choose to purchase a large number of pollution permits to greatly increase their output, which in turn could have adverse impacts on communities living near those polluters (Resnik, 2012). The ethical issue arising in this context is that the developing countries may argue that their economies are too fragile to bear even the slightest burden of greenhouse gases restrictions. Resnik (2012) also says that the businesses in those countries argue that they need to be allowed to develop economically before facing pollution restriction similar to those applied to developed nations.
The Reasons a Business May Conduct Operations in a Third World Country and Disregard any Standards of Pollution Control
Studies indicate that endorsing knowledge shift for improvement, international companies have in the participated in dumping wastes inappropriately. Kiggundu (2002) says that trade demeanor procedures in developing countries and ignore principles of effluence since regime official are under pressure to draw foreign unswerving venture. This in turn helps to uphold high levels of fiscal growth in those countries. Kiggundu (2002) at the same time argues that global operations are being pressured to use the most effectual ways of production so as to remain internationally viable. Competitive demands generate conditions trade between the multinationals and the government whereby the global corporation forces host countries to negotiate down standards of pollution control.
Another reason is that business conducting operations in developing countries have special relationship with the host government and also with various interest groups in the wider community. Kiggundu (2002) says that because global corporations are delighted as visitors, heed regarding their superiority of the affiliation they uphold together with the leadership of those countries or regimes may result to them disregarding pollution standards. It is also important to realize that some businesses operating in third world countries lack the funds, money, expertise and personnel to carry out investment and conduct operations without greenhouse gasses management, hence they may end up disregarding pollution standards (Kiggundu, 2002).
The Connections between Economic Progress, Development, Pollution Controls, and Environment Protection
There are several examples indicating that once a certain level of economic development has been reached, pollution levels increase at the same time (Sokhi & Molina, 2011). Economic progress and development bring about new technologies; many of them are less polluting. The relationship between economic progress and pollution is not always fixed but is dependent on several factors such as what is acceptable in the society and their social living conditions.
Research shows that the growth in population is a major drive in economic development and a source of environmental pollution. Sokhi & Molina (2011) noted that the number of people in a certain area determines the economic development of that place hence the overall livelihood activities leads to pollution. The majority of governments around the world have advanced strategies to improve the living conditions of their people around the world and this is expected to spur the increase of pollution.
According to Reyes & Sawyer (2011), pollution levels naturally rise as consumers in middle income countries obtain goods such as cars and industry becomes a larger percentage of GDP. Also, in middle income countries, growth in GDP per capita is usually the most important economic policy goal. With this constraint, environmental concerns are seen as temporality being of secondary importance. Reyes & Sawyer (2011) also noted that environmental damage that occurs early in the process of economic development may in some cases be irreversible.
Why Human Beings have a Moral Right to a Livable Environment Regardless of the Country they live in
It is true that people deserve to be accorded with ethical right for habitable surroundings, despite the nation or place inhibit. This right involves only certain minimal and basic duties on the part of others. Also this is on the basis that environment is one such thing that is now fully established as important for allowing human beings to fulfill their capacities. DesJardins (2012) says that a right to a livable environment need not imply a right to pristine and pure air and water but it would prohibit a laissez faire policy in regard to dumping toxic wastes, polluting the oceans with garbage, sewage and burning coal. DesJardins (2012) also says that carbon dioxide pollution would be wrong if it harmed other human beings by threatening their health or property. After learning that some harmful effects of carbon dioxide pollution might not occur for generations the ethical concepts such as duties and rights should be extended for the future generations.
Men deserve a good living environment because future age groups will need at least various ordinary and good ecological resources. Keijzers (2005) says because of the uncertainty of the future, it is still possible to come up with moral ending on present ecological manners. In the future it should be noted that people will be affected by the damaged caused to environment by the present generations. Keijzers (2005) thus says that the right to a livable environment will ensure that measurable fatalities of then environment do not have effects on the next regeneration capability which will guarantee quality life and livable environment of all people despite their country of origin.
Why Wealthy Nations have an Obligation to Provide Poorer Nations with, or Help them Develop, Greener Industries and Sources of Energy
It is true that wealthy nations are obligated to provide poorer nations with greener industries and energy sources. According toPatel, Sooknanan & Rampersad (2012), developed countries should invest in research and development with a view of making green industries more efficient and reliable, as well as improve quality. The result will be dramatic increase in production with a corresponding decline in the cost of renewable energy technologies. Patel, Sooknanan & Rampersad (2012) indicted that to have the desired effect of a green revolution these cost savings need to be transferred to developing countries. This implicates that developed countries need to pay far more attention to promoting use of green energy and to establishing sources of green energy in developing nations.
It is crucial that developed countries help developing countries financially so that they could fight with the menace caused by the phenomenon of global warming. World donor organizations are uniquely suited to accelerate the development of renewable energy and to facilitate its transfer to developing countries. Patel, Sooknanan & Rampersad (2012) says that skillful use of large purchases can accelerate investments in the production of renewable energy equipment in developing countries. Since developed countries have the finances and expertise in terms of technology and human resources, they should help developing countries to come up with green industries and renewable sources of energy. Financing from developed nations will play a crucial role in the development of green industries and adoption of clean energy in the developing countries.
The funding plans from developed countries are supposed to minimize transaction costs, bear high quality products, and engage financiers through the establishment of funding methods with multinational banks such as World Bank or rural credit cooperatives. Studies indicate that funding is the most successful in amalgamation in association with strategies such as fiscal inducement and the formation of advertising. Developed countries should also come up with incentives to award energy reserves or the production of alternative sources of clean energy instead of awarding the investment. This can be achieved through purchasing carbon credits in developing countries especially where green technologies have been adopted.
Plans for Uniform Global Pollution Control Standards and How to Enforce the Standards
Uniform global pollution standardsensure that limited and appropriate scales of emissions are developed and ensure that companies that exceed those limits are fined based on set standards. Brux (2010) says that global companies are entailed to compile with these guidelines. Multinational companies are in the first place grouped based on set regulations and classified on basis of performance. A performance regulation details a definite intensity of concert or conformity that should accomplished and met. The body involved in the regulations may request that the company reduces its rate of pollution produced to the environment to a certain level.
The blueprint specifies not only the necessary intensity of performance but also the earnings of reaching that point. A good example is the management of emissions produced by automobiles through installing devices and equipments that reduce such emissions (Brux, 2010). Also pollution fees or pollution permits are another type of control. Both plans are more elastic and are depended on the market place to manage emissions more proficiently than the use of regulations. Brux (2010) noted that with the help of this type of control, if a firm opts to reduce its emissions the bigger costs of implementing such plans will also fall down. The significant aspect is enforcing certain monetary remittance can not induce the use of technology but to the contrary they give companies the motivation to search for the lesser cost alternatives so as to reduce the pollution fines. On the basis of fee enforcement and management of pollution to the environment scholars have learned that imposing such payments is easier than to put in place the required guidelines and policies.
Global effluence consents and greenhouse gasses charges are inducement type of control mechanisms, which utilize the effectiveness of the present trends in global trade. Brux (2010) says such global controls are often effective and not costly because they do not stifle technological change. Global pollution permit controls have taken on a more vital role in the context of a cap and trade system. To enforce these controls, each player is given a permit based on the estimated amount of emission his business causes to the environment.
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