The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘MAUSAM’, which means ‘weather’. Monsoon is a global weather pattern that occurs from the presence of differential heat on different land masses. Monsoon usually remains severe in tropical regions because the sun rays are much intense there, which facilities a large low pressure system. Due to this, the temperature difference between the upper atmosphere and the lower becomes significant. This facilitates the uppermost atmosphere, which accommodates clouds that are generated due to the difference of temperature between the two.
History of Monsoon Research
Usually air flows from the high pressure towards the low pressure regions, and this phenomenon is known as the gradient pressure. As soon as the temperature on land and pollution begins to change, the rains begin to bowl from the ocean to land the city, thus accommodating the change of whether temperatures. Due to this severe change of limits in temperatures in these regions, particularly in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, these areas witness heavy flooding for the most of the season (Robert 204).
In the African region, the monsoon pattern is not as significant as in the Middle East and Southeast Asia regions. Usually in Africa, there are just a few heavy showers that do not happen every season; in fact, they occur once in three seasons, thus ending a large dry season. It was in the year 1686, when the weather pattern of monsoon was first explained, and a person who did that was the mathematician by the name of Edmond Halley. He investigated other significant changes in tropical and non tropical regions throughout the world, and due to his observations, he found the exact cause of heavy or small rain falls: the reason why a rain falls heavily in some areas, whereas it does not fall or falls little in the others. He kept researching on this phenomenon for a long while; he also traveled to many parts of the world for the sake of gaining this knowledge and understanding of the exact nature and cause of Monsoon phenomena.
The modern Monsoon theory has been considered as acceptable for the last 300 years, despite a few changes in the basic pattern; most of the data remains reliable, because the weather pattern has not changed significantly in the last 500 years. Many experts understand the dynamics of modern Monsoon phenomenon, among these researchers are Schneider and Bordoni, who were well known because of their acclaimed work and research in this field (Visor 14).
Schneider and Bordoni conducted research and invested huge resources in finding out the exact patterns and reasons of Monsoon. The study investigated why it occurs differently throughout the different parts of the world. In their computer simulation models, there was a surprising finding in terms of surface, while they were looking at the reasons of varying patterns in slightly different landmasses (Hickman 12).
Amazingly, they found out that the reason of varying Monsoon patterns was not just the difference of temperature from two different landmasses; in reality, they figured out that the reason of Monsoon patterns varying at different regions and hence the reason of such a drastic change between rainfall ratios was the turbulence of the middle latitude. They also found out that in order for a hurricane to occur, the ocean water temperature must reach 80° C.