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Free «DNA» Essay Sample

DNA outlining was first launched by Alec Jeffreys and his associates in 1985 and it was labeled as DNA fingerprinting. In quintessence, a DNA profile is same as fingerprinting. Since each human being possesses a distinguishing fingerprint, therefore each entity possess a typical DNA profile. On the other hand, DNA profiles are much more discriminating than fingerprints. Every individual carries around 3 billion DNA bases in every single cell and the DNA in each cell is practically the same (provided that the arbitrary changes that happen in DNA as a normal consequence of ageing). (Brook, 2010)

When a forensic scientist compares the DNA pattern in evidence such as a sample of blood or semen from the crime scene to that in a blood sample from a suspect, there are three possible outcomes. The result may be inconclusive because clear patterns are not seen in either sample, in the same way that latent fingerprints may be too smudged to read. or, the results may exclude the suspect from having provided the crime sample; this finding is a mayor protection for the innocent. (The FBI finds exclusions in about 30 percent of the comparisons it makes.) Finally, the examiner may declare a match, and then the suspect is included as a possible contributor to the sample from the crime. (Grey, 2007)

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The ability to identify people from biological tissue is of great benefit in many situations. Exonerating people falsely accused of violent crimes, or even causing the overturn of convictions of people for whom there is now reasonable doubt of guilt, is of obvious benefit to the people concerned. The conviction of the actual perpetrators of violent crimes is of benefit to the wider community. other applications, such as the identification of war remains by comparing DNA from the remains to DNA from the blood of family members, can also bring comfort to those involved. Challenges to the forensic use of DNA evidence have had the beneficial effect of ensuring that adequate safeguards are put into place and followed. It would be a great pity if unfounded challenges were allowed to succeed, but this appears to be becoming less likely as the scientific and legal communities become more informed about the issues. (Grey, 2007)

DNA post-conviction testing has altered our view of the death penalty, the operation of forensic laboratories and the reliability of forensic science. In addition, the numerous statutes governing DNA testing have changed the formal legal landscape. We do not yet know to what extent these developments will lead to future changes, such as a reshaping of Supreme Court jurisprudence. In showing us the criminal justice system’s failings, the DNA exonerations have unleashed a powerful potential for reform. To what extent our citizens, legislatures and courts will raise to this challenge remains to be seen. (Brook, 2010)

   

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