In this article, the review of the articles will be relation to the International Political Sociology journals, which have a collection of information concerning the subject. The journal is in reaction to the diversification of both regional concerns and scholarly interests in modern international studies. The main aim of the journal is to create a link between international relations specialists, political sociologists, and sociopolitical theorists. The first part of the journal discuss about relations between North America and European researchers. In the effort to serve all people globally, the journal is in other languages like French, Italian, Spanish, and German.
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The editors of the journal have the main obligation of setting up the operating procedures and principles. The two main editors are Didier Bigo and R. B. J. Walker. In their work, the editors will get support from eight Associate Editors and their duty will be to answer to work from other origins other than English, as the journal is a multi-cultural discipline. The journal handles issues of international relations, which have great influence in matters of Borders, Territories, and State of Exceptions. Some of the matters that have a direct link to international political sociology are matters of Borders, Territories, and State of Exceptions. In this paper, we will analyze the subject of International political sociology in relation to the three topics of Borders, Territories, and State of Exceptions. This will be with the help of three articles, which have information related to the above topics.
A state of exception refers to the procedure by which the government permits the rule of law to be discharged in the name of an issue or cause. In the ancient times, these states needed a declaration by the administration so that it can take precedence over the rule of law. Many scholars and people have contributed to the issue of states of exceptions like Roxanne Lynn Doty who wrote about the States of Exception on the Mexico. States of Exception require a declaration from the executive officer for them to supersede the rule of law but in other times calls for emergency and crisis for a state to fall under the category. A German Carl Schmitt disagrees with the above ideology stating that crisis and emergency were the standard conditions for a state to supersede the rule of law rather than an exception. The issue of Borders of countries falls into the works of Carl Schmitt as he argues that borders describe geographic boundaries of legal jurisdiction or political boundaries like federated states, governments, sovereign states, and other sub countrywide entities.
In its definition, territories refer to the waters and land under the jurisdiction of a nation. According Roxanne’s article borders of states neighboring the United States get influence from the civilian border patrol groups who engage in unauthorized and unofficial guarding of United States borders. According the article of Roxanne on Mexico borders it is evident that the government is biased on which states to protect and which ones not to guard. In the article, it is clear that had it been other borders like Texas or Crawford where there are porous borders the marines would be on guard without fail. The story of borders is a sensitive one, and it is clear knowledge that terrorists will find their way into a state whose borders are open. The major reason for issues like crime and terrorism in the states is the issue of porous borders, which is because of the lessened immigration rules.
Civilian border groups like the Minutemen have significant influence on the immigration problems in the United States. The state of borders in different states relies on the concepts of Schmitt’s ideology of friend- enemy distinction and the civilian border groups. In the article, Roxanne argues that the Schmitt concepts are necessary in the initial stage of dealing with the matter of borders, but, in the long, the concepts can be detrimental to the states. In the friend-, enemy idea of Schmitt the writer argues that in the event of a fall out between the two states will mean that the borders will be at stake risking the security of the states. Friend- enemy philosophy comes from the good relationship between powerful people and institutions of the states and in the event, these powerful powers fallout the borders become risky.
In the article of Nick Vaughan-Williams, it looks at the connection between borders, territory, and law of most states in the United States of America. In the first part, of the article, the author begins this argument on the situation of detainees held in Guantanamo Bay. Most of the detainees are illegal immigrants who the United States government has linked them with criminal and terrorism acts. This case of Guantanamo Bay raises several confrontational questions about the modern affiliation between territory, borders, and law. Guantanamo Bay hosts hundreds of detainees whose treatment has been an issue under discussion by several people. It is stated that the treatment of these detainees is inhuman, and it violates the Human Rights acts on human treatment. Another related issue is that the rules being applied in Guantanamo Bay have no origin, as the location of the institution is not known. Guantanamo Bay is not strictly a faction of the US territory and yet the rules in the application are of the US.
The case of Guantanamo Bay best describes the connection between territories, borders, and existing laws in international political life. On violence, borders, and territory of juridical- political order, the article argues that the contemporary geopolitical imagination comprises a territorial trap from three issues. These three assumptions are that nations have elite power within their regions as represented by the notion of sovereignty that international and local spheres are distinctive, and that borders of the nation describe the boundaries of society. According to the article, there are three ways in which to classify the international political and legal system. This is by every state carrying the burden of their own local legal system, states respecting the current legal presence and equality of other nations before international law, and nations must not infringe the rule of territorial integrity of any other nation.
In the last article by Tugba Basaran the author, explore on the subject of security, law, and borders and how these three create spaces for exclusion for some states. The idea of states of exceptions comes from the borders of these states, and it is evident in the modern times for these states to exist. The case of borders comes from the spaces or areas where some inhuman activities take place like in the case of Guantanamo Bay. The liberal states claim that the zones do not fall in their territory, and the illiberal states claim otherwise. The legal infrastructure of the border areas can give a response on whether these areas are outside or inside the states and who carries the obligations, and if these spaces are distinctive areas indeed.
The author agrees with Schmitt that the creation of state of exceptions is through politics and ordinary law of borders and space. The legal plan of the border area creates a room that validates excessive policing authorities and in turn restricts the outreach of privileges for a category of individuals. Politics portray borders as physically fixed boundaries. The matter of borders is complex as it may mean the edge, interior, or outside a territory and this will require law to define these issues. In turn, these two issues will determine the states of exceptions.
In the above articles, it is evident that matters of Borders, Territories, and States of Exceptions are interrelated as one is a cause of the other or the existence of one influences the presence of the other. For instance, the cause of states of exceptions is the normal conditions of territories markings their borders and hence defining their policies and rules. The zones that will not fall in any of the borders of the territories will become states of exceptions and, therefore, override the rule of law.
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