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Free «Osteoarthritis» Essay Sample

Osteoarthritis refers to degenerative disorders that mainly affect joints, mostly joints bearing large weights and hands and hands. These disorders form the main diseases affecting joints. The main characteristics of this condition include joint enlargement, movement limitation, deformity, pain and osteophytes (growth of new bones at the margins of joints) (Lane and Wallace, 2002). Since there is no known cure for this clinical condition, major treatments are aimed at pain relief and ensuring continuity in the movement of joints, and some of the categories of medication employment include:

COX-2 inhibitors

 For example Celecoxib.

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Non-selective COX inhibitor/ misoprostol

For example: Dictofenae and misoprostol

NSAIDs (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs):

 These drugs decrease inflammation even if they do not contain steroids. That is they are mainly aimed at inflammation reduction as well as pain relief and presently they are considered as the second for OA treatment. They decrease an individual ability to experience pain and also have the ability to block production of prostaglandins which is known to initiate and maintain inflammation for prolonged periods. Examples include: meperidine (Demerol) and oxycodone (percodan) (Lane and Wallace, 2002).

Nonacetylated salicytes

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 for example for example: Dolobid and Disalcid.

Corticosteroids

This medicine is prescribed for cases where NSAIDs fails to respond. They are employed as the third line for OA treatment. They resemble cortisone, a natural hormone secreted by adrenal glands’ cortex. They are effective as anti-inflammatory agents and they allergic reactions, inflammation, colitis and pain.

Aspirin-free pain relievers for example acetaminophen (Tylenol)

This is the first drug in line for the treatment of OA and is aimed at reducing pain temporarily mainly in cases of moderate pain.  This drug has no ability of decreasing inflammation and swelling. Another drug in this category is panadol (Lane and Wallace, 2002).

Primary drugs for TB treatment include:

 
 
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Drugs used for treatment of tuberculosis are antimicrobial drugs aimed the TB causing bacteria.

 Isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol hydrochloride, streptomycin and pyrazinamide (Scholar and Pratt, 2000).

Treatment of hypertension

The drugs for high blood pressure treatment are aimed at reducing blood pressure to normal levels.

Inhibitors of Angiotensin converting enzyme for example: cilazapril

Blockers of Angiotensin receptors for example: for example eptosartan and losartan.

Blockers of Calcium-channel for example: lacidipine and isradipine.

Diuretics for example: bendroflumethiazide.

Beta-blockers for example: metoprolol and timolol.

Combination of calcium blockers and beta blockers in angina treatment.

Warfarin

Foods that affect the activity of warfarin act via interaction with the drug itself and some of these include: American ginseng, fenugreek, ginger, horse chestnut, devil,s claw and dong quai.

   

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