The science of photonics involves the generation, emission, transmission, and modulation, processing of signals, amplification, switching, detecting and the subsequent sensing of light. Photonics have both the wave and the particle nature. Photonics actually entails the technical applications of light over the entire spectrum from ultraviolet over the perceptible to the near, mid as well as far infrared. Conversely, it ought to be noted that a greater percentage of the applications lies within the noticeable and near infrared light (Campello et al., 1996).
The Smart Photonic Networks, abbreviated as the SPNs, provide safe and high speed data communication required for the purposes of picking up, processing and transmission of images as well as the image-format data. The above mentioned functions create big challenges for designing the reliable as well as secure processing systems and information networks. The designing of the ideal SPNs entails the specification of expatriate architecture with both brainy and distinguishable networks for the purposes of coping up with extremely variable demands for the high rate data and the determination of coding techniques to be utilized in the security provision needs such as integrity, privacy, reliability and availability of high bandwidth optical links of communication (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000).
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The SPNs are characterized with the high speed optical communication and as a result bring about numerous challenges in the field of data security. Such challenges are a result of both the high data rates and the analogous round trip delay, commonly known as the latency (measured in bits). Both the coding and the encryption techniques have been designed to happen at the speeds which are quite suitable for the communication via electronic means and may be considerably slow for optical data rates. For the simple protocols, the likes of the Automatic Repeat Quest (ARQ) exceptionally large buers are required for the purposes of storing real-time data for a possible retransmission (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000).
The primary security needs for the SPNs include privacy, integrity, reliability and availability. In a more elaborate way in the aspect of privacy, the safety of data in the Smart Photonic Networks is assured even when it is assumed that an eavesdropper is likely to tap a number of links from the same network. Additionally, the SPNs ensure the integrity by making certain that data in transit are not deliberately or accidentally modeled by insertion, replacement or even deletion. Besides, the SPNs ensure that the data communication is robust enough to hold out misrouting and/or link failures (reliability) (Campello et al., 1996). In addition, the communication network ought to be considerably sophisticated to uphold a minimum level of throughput even in the presence of constraints enforced by both link failures and high rate image data. It is worth noting that the issue existing between the privacy and reliability with respect to the SPNs is quite paramount. The conventional approach to this challenge is to rest the data encryption so as to get hold of the sought after privacy level and thereafter to utilize error control codes for reliability purposes. Though this seems to be an artless approach, the same can hardly be applicable to the wished-for scenario since the extant techniques of encryption barely avail the essential levels at the very high data rates needed by image data in literally all networks of an optical footing (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000).
In efforts to realize both the reliability and privacy, secret sharing techniques are employed. These techniques are well thought-out making a system as the space-time code diversity. Rather than merely sending messages (in multiple copies) and the shares of secret messages get to be transmitted via divergent alleyways. Secret sharing schemes have been initially geared towards managing cryptographic keys in a secure manner. Although cryptographic systems were the preferable means of clambering messages to the extent that the only individual in the possession of the key was the only one to decrypt the message after keying in the right decryption key; the loss of the message amounted to the loss of the message. Secret sharing was created for resolving such shortcomings on its part; it supported the breaking up of the key into numerous pieces, referred to as shares, in such a way that the access structure for recovering the key was solely possible in the event that the allowable group of shares had been set (Campello et al., 1996). Such a scheme is only perfect in the event that the subset of shares set that is not within the access structure lets slip of no information regarding the key. Secret sharing schemes can also be used in a courier mode; which rather than dividing a key into shares and thereafter giving them to subordinates being partially trustable, and the messages themselves get to be broken into these shares. These message shares can then be assigned to different couriers, which transmit them via different and incompletely reliable conduits to the destination. Notably, it is not a necessity that the transmission of different couriers takes place at the same time; while some are sent with the current information, others can be sent in a prior time (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000).
In this era of computer and communications networks, such as the TCP/IP protocols, the concept of sending messages in several couriers is crucial. Notably that in the event the number of the distinct paths reliably transmitting the message is considerably greater than the eavesdropper’s maximum path numbers, this concept of secret sharing can, therefore, be utilized in achieving both reliability and secrecy (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000). However, the scheme sharing is faced with the problem of managing the amount of bandwidth especially in the event of the extreme bandwidth expansion.
The applications of photonics are diverse. The areas ranging from the lives in common areas to sophisticated fields in science such as telecommunication, light detection, information processing, illumination, spectroscopy, metrology, medicine (especially the vision correction, surgery, health monitoring and endoscopy), holography, robotics, military technology, visual art, laser material processing, agriculture and bio-photonics are included. Other areas include the consumer equipment (remote control devices, barcode scanners, CD/DVD and other Blu-ray devices), industrial manufacturing (the use of lasers in drilling and welding), construction, entertainment, photonic computing and aviation (Campello et al., 1996).
The demand for the SNPs in various network applications has been in the increase due to technological facilities and devices. In various places all over the world, there are various new-fashioned outstanding facilities and instruments but they have remained inaccessible. Some of these include India’s unique observatory (built more than 4.5 km above the sea level in the desert of Ladakh) and the highly specialized robot-assisted surgery system of da Vinci in various specialized hospitals. With the use of remote controls of such instruments, time and expense, have all through been saved in the relocation of experts to directly work on the site (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000). The most recent SNPs applications have been the demonstration of specialists of CESNET and Masaryk Hospital in their transmission of robotic operations to their Japanese colleagues. With such advances in optical networking, it has been possible to view the light pulses being exactly timed once per second with a resolution in order to check the tenth part of nanoseconds. The latency prerequisites of this new-fashioned comparison approach option can be bumped into by network nodes, which hardly introduces any variable delay. Factually, photonic nodes have been noted to overwhelm the limits of electronics in standard nodes. Moreover, they are a substrate for the newfangled applications (Campello et al., 1996).
In the foreseeable future, it is perceivable that the optical technology will be very pivotal, not only in the transmission areas, but also for switching. This is attributable to the numerous advantages of smart photonic switches. For instance, the optical burst switching (OBS) came about as one of the most promising paradigm in switching. Smart photonic switching is bringing together the complementary strengths of electronics and optics. For example, silica-on-silicon (SoS) smart photonic switching modules support several outstanding functions and features such as the dynamic power control used in managing the power attenuation as a requirement. This in the present time has been so handled outside the switch fabric (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000). Additionally, the SoS modules have facilitated the conversion of paramount network capabilities (the advantages of selectively weighted multicasting and broadcasting) from optical to electrical and vice versa. Others features include the stock-exchange broadcasting and/or video data broadcasting as per the individual path power budgets. The SoS switches have also been used in enabling the power equalization in erbium-doped amplifiers. Other inherent features of SOS switches include the high reliability, transparency, non-blocking features and sub-millisecond restoration (Shani, Ben-Horin & Leigh, 2000). In conclusion, it is evident that successful photonic networks for the real-time service have facilitated the response to events, the time of which is predetermined.