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Abstract

The nature of organization’s human resource dictates the progress of the organization. Incompetent and low skilled human resource translates into a disorganised organization. This paper discusses several human resource issues that should be taken care of to ensure development of any organization.

Introduction

Human resource is a general term that is used to refer to individuals who make up the employees of an organization, a company or the economy as a whole. In some cases, human capital is used to instead, of human resource bur note that human capital describes a narrower view of employees. Other terms used to refer to human resource includes manpower, labour, and employees (Felder, 1997).

An analysis done by Felder (1997) indicated that although human resource goals differ from one institute to another all of them are directed towards common targets.  This includes continuous and sustained improvement, better quality, outreach and compliance. To ensure achievement of these targets, human resource management departments make efforts to ensure a particularly close relationship between departmental goals and company goals. Critical goals that human resource management takes care of include recruiting and retaining of highly competent employees, work-life balance, and professional provision of a diverse workplace environment. 

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Reynolds (2012) explains that human resource goals and objectives is what keeps an organization grow both in size in size and complexity. Note that human resource is an integral part of any organization. Proper human resource management ensures organization growth and development. To achieve organization growth, human resource department implements human resource goals and objectives. In this case, human resource goals represent a wider scope of aims that an organization targets while objectives are expected outcomes that will measure how an organization has achieved its goals (Rowden, 2001).

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Organizational Perception of Employees

Felder (1997) explains “most organizations view their employees as their most valuable assets whose value is improved through properly planned development and training programmes”. Competence and job expertise of an organization’s human resource is the main aim of most organizations. To ensure this key goal is achieved, human resource management department is dedicated towards ensuring employee satisfaction. In this department, employees’ issues including grievances, conflicts, and individual issues are taken care off. All this is done to ensure that an organization’s human resource is satisfied and ready to work efficiently and effectively. Felder (1997) explains that in governing human resources, three main trends are typically considered:

  • Employee diversity: this takes care of the workplace variation.  In a modern workplace, a large fraction of employees is made up of baby boomers or otherwise called older employees. Nevertheless, note that all workplaces have employees who are of different age groups. The difference in age implies that employee satisfaction is perfectly relative. This implies that what will satisfy a fifty year old employee does not necessarily mean that it will satisfy a thirty year old. Besides this, employees differ in gender, race, and sexual orientation.  Organization management, therefore, endeavours to satisfy all these diverse needs subject to individual needs.
  • Employee demographics: this takes care of the different characteristics of a workplace such as social class and gender. In essence to this, the human resource management takes into account insurance covers of employees, their pension scheme, allowances, and other related benefits.
  • Employee skills and qualification: the more organizations are moving from a manual system to automated ones or the more organization become complex, the more employees need better skills in their areas of expertise. This implies that organizations compete for highly skilled and competent employees. Organizations attract competent employees through offering high financial incentives, employee benefits and allowances. To avoid the expenses incurred in getting highly competent employees, most organizations have resorted to thorough training of its human resource. 

According to Reynolds (2012) the more technology evolves and becomes more complicated, the more human resource becomes exceedingly dynamic. To retain its position, organizations have to accept an embrace the changes in the labour market. In essence to this keep the following aspects in mind.

  • Difference in generations: the different available generations, which are determined by age categories, have certain distinct characteristics. For instance, what employees in a 25 to 35 age group expect from an organization is not necessarily what a 50 to 60 age group expects. Most old age employees prefer staying long in their workplace because of financial and other social pressure. On the other hand, young employees do not like staying too long in their workplace because they are interested more in their relationships.
  • Geographical spread: the distance between an employee’s residence and the workplace is taken into account in this case.  There, should be a direct proportionality between the allowances and the distance an employee has to travel from home to work. In addition to this, the transport infrastructure should be taken into account since it directly affects the performance of an employee.
  • Occupation structure: this is the norms, values, and general code of conduct of a given career.  There   are three kinds of occupation structure, inter alia, organization career, which insists on promotion in an organization, craft that into account professional loyalty, and unstructured that accounts for the unskilled workers who are recruited when need arises.

Human Resource Planning

For all the organization goals and objectives to be achieved, the right, human resource should be recruited. Recruitment is done in response to the number of employees and skills needed. Proper human resource recruitment avoids employee turnovers and thus it ensures that all the available resources are utilised. To ensure proper recruitment, an organization should first have a human resource forecast and plan (Rowden, 2001).

Human resource forecasting is a step by step or procedural estimation of an organization’s future human resource requirements. This includes the number of employees needed and the skills they need to have.  According to Rowden (2001) “human resource forecasting includes predicting the number of employees that an organization will recruit, train and promote during a given span of time”.  On the other hand, human resource planning is a process of determining how an organization will move from its current employee position to the forecasted or desired employee position. This implies that an organization should have a strategy to acquire and utilise the forecasted human resources. Trough human resource planning, an organization determines human resource requirements that they will need to sustain their future workforce status.

Rowden (2001) founded out that there is standard human resource planning process that should be followed to ensure that a good plan arises. First, the human resource department should analyse the organization in terms of its expected production, technology, market position, and financial requirement. Besides this, the strategies and objectives of the organization are also analysed. Secondly, the organization’s human resource demand is forecasted. This includes the level of skills required and the right number needed in each department. New positions that might arise due to the growth and development of the organization is also forecasted. To get the right number of needed human resource, several methods can be used, namely managerial judgement, use of work study, ratio trend analysis, and making use of mathematical models.

Human resource supply forecast follows the demand forecast. At this stage, several sources of human resources are analysed. There are two sources, inter alia, internal sources and external sources. Internal sources include promotions, inter-departmental transfers and recruiting relatives of the current employees. External sources include poaching employees from other firms, employing from institutions of higher training, from employment firms, and other sources (Rowden, 2001).

The human resource demand and supply forecast will enable the organization to ascertain the manpower gaps. After comparing the two forecasts, an organization will determine whether it has a surplus or deficit inhuman resource. Once these gaps are identified, an action plan to bridge the gap is put in place. In case, there is a surplus in human resources, measures to deploy the extra employees in other departments or retrench them are put in place. In case of recruitment and selection, the organization should is a plan for these important processes.  After an action plan is implemented, monitoring and control of the resulting workforce is put in place. This includes revising the human resource structure and recording the level of performance of each employee periodically which will assist in noting any deficiencies as early as possible or it gives a guide in plans (Rowden, 2001).

Human Resource Recruitment

Human resource plan will give a guide to recruitment. Recruitment is done to fill the gaps realised during human resource demand and supply forecast.  Watad & Ospina (1999) explains that human resource planning is a process of looking for viable and prospective employees and encouraging them to apply for the vacant jobs in the organization. Therefore, human resource recruitment attracts prospective employees to apply for jobs. To ensure that the organization attract the needed skills, it should ensure that a large number of prospective employees apply for the vacant posts (Bundy, 1997).

To ensure transparency and gain public support, an organization should follow established recruitment steps. First of all, the departments in an organization have to analyse its employee requirement. Consequently, department managers should send its request for employees to the human resource department. The requests should include the number of employees needed, positions to be filled, tasks to be performed, needed qualifications, and terms and conditions for employment. Other steps that follow include locating and coming up with the sources of the needed number and nature of employees, identifying possible characteristics of the prospective employees, communicating the job vacancies and terms and conditions for the job to prospective employees, encouraging as many as possible candidates to apply, and lastly assessing how effective the recruitment has been (Armstrong, 1999).

Human Resource Selection

After an organization receives applications for a vacancy from the identified prospective employees, the human resource management department is given a task of selecting the most suitable candidate basing on merit but not bias. In selection, the organization job requirement is matched with the applicant’s qualification. It procedurally unweeds unsuitable applicants and lastly comes up with the most suitable candidate for the job. Proper selection builds a stable workforce through reducing employee turnover and ensuring that employee absenteeism is as low as possible. To ensure that the right number and type of employees are selected, the selection process is procedural and has eight stages (Watad & Ospina, 1999).

Armstrong’s study (1999) explains that the first stage is preliminary interview stage, where the prospective candidates are given comprehensive information about the nature of the job and other general information. Besides this, the company gets information from the candidates such as education, experience, skills, and what they expect as remuneration. Unsuitable candidates are eliminated while the suitable ones go to the next stage (Armstrong, 1999).  

At the second stage, the selection team makes use of an application blank candidates are required to fill a form that collects information on aspects such as identity of the candidate, personal information, job experience, his or her referees, and any other concerned miscellaneous issue. At this stage, candidates who lack behind in education, skills and experienced are unwedded. Besides this, the information collected at this stage guided the selection team in formulating interview questions and the records can be kept for future references (Armstrong, 1999).

At the third stage, candidates are given psychological selection tests.  These tests gather information on aspects such as behaviour and performance.  Common test given to candidates includes potential or aptitude tests, proficiency or achievement tests, personality tests, and interest tests. All candidates are given the same tests and thus this stage ensures that candidates are selected basing on merit (Armstrong, 1999). Tests uncover characteristics and qualifications that cannot be established by any other method. Those who score highly at this stage are selected to the next stage, the employment interview (Watad & Ospina, 1999).

An interview entails a face to face assessment or appraisal of the candidate. It is a conversation between two parties, namely the candidate and the selection panel. It is necessary to note that election cannot be complete without this stage. It serves three purposes, inter alia, giving a candidate's background information such as education and education and history, gives the candidates information about the company, and establishes a personal, close relationship between the candidate and the prospective employer. Candidates who go through this stage will have literally been selected for the position (Boella, 1996).

Employment interview is followed by a medical examination for the candidate. Medication examination is done either by the organization’s medical officer or any other preferred health centre. This stage is crucial because it collects employee’s health records. In case of any ailment, in the future, while the employee is working, the record will help the organization in knowing the best way to handle the disease. After the medical tests, the candidates are required to give the addresses of people who know them well and thus can act as their referees. Most organizations insist that the referees be the employee’s previous employers or heads of the training institution they have schooled. This record will enable the employer to contact the referees for frank opinions (Armstrong, 1999).

Lastly, the successful candidates are approved by the top management and offered the contested position. They are given appointment letters, which mentions the post, salary, rank, grade, and the official date that the candidate is expected to join the organization. Provided that there is transparency and all the selection steps are followed, an organization will be able to select the most suitable candidates for the vacant positions in the organization (Boella, 1996).

Human Resource Training and Development

Gitten (2000) explains that an “organization has a responsibility of ensuring that its human resource is kept up to date”. Note that, besides the job, employees have their individual career objectives, that is, they desire to reach higher levels of expertise. Besides this, the current workforce is remarkably dynamic. Employees, therefore, need to change with the changing workforce. All this can be achieved through a well planed routine training and development programmes. 

In essence to this, training can be described as a systematic and procedural process of imparting skills, knowledge, and attitude to an organization’s human resource through practical learning experience. Through training, new and current employees are given skills that they need to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in their workplace. On the other hand, human resource development is described as a process of giving employees better knowledge and capacities. Through training and development, the gap between the expected workplace performance and the practical performance is bridged.   Through a well planned training program, the human resource is motivated, given better skills, gets to know the advance in technology in their workplace, attain workplace expertise, and ensures that the organization succeeds through its employees (Boella, 1996).

Gitten (2000) came up with several types of trainings. These include orientation and job training where new employees are introduced into the organization’s system of operation and increase their skills and knowledge respectively. Additionally, safety training that gives employees safety knowledge and refresher training that makes employees remember some skills that they had forgotten due to the passage of time are vital. Lastly Gitten (2000) recommends remedial training that is taken to overcome the behavioural and performance shortcomings.

Training should not be done just because it is one of the duties of the management. Training should have identified objectives, and thus it should be done to achieve the identified objectives. In essence to this, a systematic training includes steps such as identifying the employees’ training needs, setting the training policies and objectives subject to the training needs, designing the training, conducting the training, and evaluating the performance of the training (Gitten, 2000).

Human Resource Performance Appraisal

For an organization to know the trend of performance and progress of its human resources, it should undertake a periodical performance appraisal. According to Gitten (2000), performance appraisal is the process of systematic and impartial human resource rating basing on excellence in the workplace. Employers are able to know how well an employee is performing through performance appraisal. Performance appraisal ensures that employees are ranked basing on how they perform.

To ensure that performance appraisal if fair, transparent and brings out the real performance of employees, several steps should be followed. First, the organization should establish fair grounds of assessing its employees. At this stage, an organization sets up  criteria that will be used in the appraisal. This should be done clearly in writing and should incorporate measures that are measurable. In cases where performance can not be measured, employee’s characteristics that contribute to his or her performance should be determined. This can include aspects such as honesty, cooperation, reliability, leadership, teamwork, job knowledge, initiative, and learning ability. At this step, the person, to appraise the employees and the frequency of the appraisal should be determined (Torrington & Hall, L1998).

Secondly, the standards set at the first stage should be communicated to the employees. The communication should explain any issue that is not clear and ensure that employees are aware of what is expected in the appraisal. Thirdly, the most suitable technique of measuring performance is identified. This includes identifying both internal and external factors that influence performance and possible ways of collecting information on the identified techniques. At the fourth stage, the actual performance of the exercise is compared with the expected performance. Through making this comparison, an organization will be able to reveal the deviation, which can be either negative or positive (Torrington & Hall, L1998).

At the fourth stage, the results of the appraisal are discussed. The assessor should discuss the appraisal with employee since the exercise is targeted at helping the employer. The employee is allowed to express his feelings towards the appraisal. Discussion is extremely significant since the employee can identify his or her weaknesses, as well as, strengths. The assessor, therefore, gets a chance to advice the employee subject to the results available. After discussion, the employee can take corrective measures to ensure that the weaknesses identified in the appraisal are mitigated. Besides this, the employer is tasked to provide facilities that can improve employee performance (Torrington & Hall, L1998).

There are several methods can be used in employee appraisal. An organization is at liberty to choose one or a combination of methods subject to the kind of the human resource. These methods include confidential reports, use of free forms or narratives, straight ranking paired comparison, forced distribution, graphic rating, critical incident, group appraisal, alternative ranking, management by objective, and ranking basing on behaviour at workplace (Yin, 1984).

Yin (1984) pointed out “it is unfortunate that some managers have taken this opportunity to harass and punish their employees”. Performance appraisal loses its credibility if the appraisal is biased. Many managers use performance appraisal to punish employees who at some point performed in accordance with his or her professional code of ethics, but in contradiction with what the manager expected. Some of the biases in performance appraisal include error in rating, lack of reliability, assessor’s incompetence, and negative approach to appraisal. Biased performance appraisal has made organizations loose exceptionally competent employees who would have otherwise achieved better yields for the organization.

Wage and Salary Administration

One cannot discuss anything to do with human resources without touching on employee compensation. This is because it is one of the biggest that affects employee satisfaction. Employment losses its credibility if the compensation provided fails to cater for employee needs. Low compensation explains why some organizations have failed to attract highly competent employees. Employee compensation affects the profitability and vitality of an organization (Ronald, & Serbrenia, 1994).

Salary administration is more than just satisfying the needs of an employee. In this modern community, people have become popular and well respected just because they are paid well. Therefore, good compensation provides a sense of recognition besides dictating the social status of an individual. It motivates the society to work harder. Observing this issue from a wider perspective, good remuneration influences compensation, savings, government spending, and the general economy of any nation (Yin, 1984). 

A study done by Ronald, & Serbrenia (1994) classified Employee compensation has into two, namely, basic or basic compensation and supplementary compensation. In primary compensation employees are paid salaries or wages. Basic pay is fixed at a predetermined rate and usually non-incentive. The amount of the basic pay is determined by the time one takes in the workplace. On the other hand, supplementary compensation is made up of incentives and other variable payment that depends on the performance of an individual or a group as a whole.

To ensure fairness and equality in remuneration, there are several measures to manage employee compensation that have been put in place. Compensation management involves aspects such as job evaluation, salary and wage survey, developing nag maintaining a fair compensation structure, formulating rules that will govern the administration of wages, profit sharing and payroll cost controlling (Alain David, 1992).

Through compensation management, a fair and equitable way of remunerating the workforce is identified and implemented. It also guarantees equitable remuneration both internally and externally and enhances productivity, employee organization loyalty and satisfaction. Additionally, it helps to ensure that present human resource is retained, administration and labour cost is controlled, and union management relations and the public image are improved (Armstrong, 1999).

Internationally, there are several principles that govern salary administration to the workforce. The principles dictate that wage and salary structure should be outlined clearly in writing and the development of the wage structure should be done keeping in mind the human resource interests, their consumption, and the community around them. Salary given by organization should be in line with the plans of the organization and should be highly flexible in that it responds to both internal and external changes. Besides this, the organization should make efforts to ensure that its human resource understands the wage policy by making it extremely easy and understandable (Armstrong, 1999).

Fair and equity in remuneration does not imply that all employees should be paid the same amount of money. There are several factors that affect the amount of wages that the different employees of an organization get. Fairness and equity, therefore, mean that every employee is paid in direct proportion to his or her level of output or time spent in the workplace. However, the company should choose the criteria to use in determining the productivity of an employee. Most companies base their judgement on the amount of output that an individual employee gives per given time. Other methods used are time spent in the workplace or the innovativeness of the employee (Ronald, & Serbrenia, 1994).

In essence to this, there are several factors that affect the level of salary that an employee gets. First is the demand and supply of skill or labour. The forces of these two aspects dictate the wage rate. However, note that the ability of the organization to pay, state regulation, academic qualification, and the labour union laws acts to balance this force.  In addition to this, job requirement such as the level of physical and mental requirements to perform a given task dictates that level of wages given to an employee. In general, organizations have to pay their human resource in line with the prevailing wage rates. Employees performing the same task or at the same rank should be paid equally. Besides this internal equality, an organization should ensure that there is external equality in that its employees should be paid the same amount to employees in other organization (Armstrong, 1999).

Using the above factors in determining the amount of remuneration that an employee should be given might not be satisfying. There are six steps that should be followed in determining the wage of the human resource.  First, the human resource department should do a comprehensive job analysis. In this analysis, the content and requirement of all jobs is determined. The information collected from this analysis is used to prepare job specification and description. Secondly, jobs are evaluated to identify the value of each job. This value is the converted into monetary equivalence, which will in turn assist in fixing the basic wages in the different jobs. Thirdly, the organization should conduct a wage survey to determine the level employees are paid in other organizations (Armstrong, 1999).   

Information collected from the wage survey will guide the organization in developing a wage structure. This structure should ensure internal and external equity. Fifth, the organization develops wage administration rules. These rules govern the advance payments, promotion allowances, increments in salary and other related issues. Lastly, the organization should conduct periodical employee appraisal in order to rewards employees basing on merit (Armstrong, 1999).  

Human Resource Welfare

It is particularly obvious that an organization cannot exist without human resources. Man organization has made it just because of realizing that their most valuable assets are its employees. These organizations have strongly invested in ensuring that its employees’ welfare is appropriate. Employee or human resource welfare is a term used to refer to steps taken to ensure that the comfort of the employees is assuredby an organization. In response to the need of taking care of employee welfare, the International Labour Committee in 1969 gave three basic facilities and services that should be availed to ensure employee welfare. The facilities are recreational facilities, adequate canteens, clean sanitation and accommodation, and social security (Armstrong, 1999).

For several years, many employees have been exposed to dangerous and unhealthy workplace. There is a general outcry for improvement of employee workplace mostly in developing nations. In response to this, there are several agencies that have come up to ensure that employee welfare is granted (Yin, 1984).

Several governments if not all have come up with numerous acts of parliament that takes care of employee welfare. These acts of parliament precisely deal with all concerns that should be considered in any modern workplace. This includes recreation facilities, safety measures, employee benefits, salary, medical covers, insurance and several others. Besides this, parliamentary acts have been used to govern the workforce age limits. In most nations, the majority age; 18 years, is used as the lower limit while 65 is the retirement age (Armstrong, 1999).

Employers have also been particularly active in ensuring that they handle employee welfare appropriately. Most employers were employees at some point and therefore, understood the need for employee welfare. Those who have tried to resist changes to ensure employee welfare have been forced to do so by government requirement and international and local labour laws. It is encouraging to learn that most employees have owned up to call for employee welfare.

Thirdly, trade unions have played a crucial role in ensuring that the employee welfare is granted. Workers have formed workers union, which bargains for their right s such as good remuneration and welfare. To support the need of employee welfare, most governments have formed and supported the movements of a national trade union body. National trade unions take part in making labour laws and debating for employee rights. Besides this trade, unions have assisted in identification of the individual worker needs and has aided in administration of employee welfare (Yin, 1984).

Employee welfare has been divided into two types, namely, intra-mural and extra-mural. Intra-mural welfare is services that are available within an organization. This includes toilets, wash facilities, canteens, uniforms, medical covers, physical fitness facilities, library services, and free or subsidized food. On the other hand, extra-mural services provides outside services that cannot be provided internally. This includes further education, transport to and from job, free loans, trips, maternity benefits, and many others (Ronald, & Serbrenia, 1994).

Human resource Discipline and Grievances

The human resources have to be disciplined to ensure that the organization goals are realized besides ensuring higher productivity. In addition to this, employee discipline improves labour relations, morale and cooperation within the human resource. Human resource discipline can be defined as the absence of chaos, disorder, and confusion in the workplace.  This is a force that makes human resources comply to established rules and regulations. Disciplined employees have a sense of respect and tolerance to human dignity, have high morale and are efficient in their operations, and willingly accept the organization rules and regulations (Yin, 1984). 

Ronald, & Serbrenia, (1994) observed that there are two types of discipline that can be observed in the workplace, namely, negative and positive discipline. Employees who have positive or self discipline view observing rules and regulations as their daily duty.  Therefore, employees willingly comply with established rules and regulations. Management achieve positive discipline through rewarding employees who are self disciplined. On the other hand, negative discipline or otherwise called, punitive or corrective discipline is punishment or penalties given to employees who have violated rules and regulations.  Employees are reprimanded, fined, or suspended to make them realize that they have to observe the established rules and regulations. Note that punitive discipline is not the best way to ensure employee discipline since it fails to correct undesired behaviours, but suppresses it. In the long-run negative discipline leads to employee resentment.  

Organizations should avoid punitive discipline by trying to understand why the employee had to behave that way. The management might realize that the employee was not willing to behave that way, but was pushed into it. Some causes of employee indiscipline include divide and rule policy, inefficiency in leadership, poor handling of employee grievances, stagnation in promotion, defective communication within the workplace, employee victimization,  excess work, personal problems, trade union and political influence, poor working environment, unfair remuneration, and bias within the organization (Yin, 1984).

However, some employees are naturally stubborn and enjoy breaking laws. In such like a case, the management should follow the right procedure of punishing the employee. Firstly, a preliminary investigation on the supposed indiscipline is done. If the investigation reveals that the employee is guilty, he or she is given a charge sheet. At this stage, the employee is given a chance to explain the reasons for the misconduct. If the management feels that the explanations given are not sufficient, the accused is suspended while the investigation is done. While in suspension, the accused is entitled to half the normal salary. After the inquiry, the accused employee is given the inquiry report. If he or she accepts the allegations, the employer goes ahead to award the punishment. If he does not admit, further inquiry should be done. The inquiry should be conducted by impassion people.  The findings of the inquiry are recorded including the reasons. The management will, therefore, base on this report to reward punishment to the employee. The awarded punishment should be communicated to the employee. In this communication, the findings of the inquiry and the commencement date should be given (Ronald, & Serbrenia, 1994).

 Conclusion and Recommendation

This paper has covered almost all areas of human resource concern. Note that the reviewed literature has given a generalised argument. The rules and codes of conduct of human resources differ from country to country as well as from organization to organization. For instance, in as much as there are international labour laws, the national ones differ from country to country. However, these rules are similar and directed towards a better place for human resources.

Researches have come up with several agreed processes of conducting some aspects related to human resources in an organization. For instance, I have given several steps that can be used in processes such as human resource planning, recruitment, selection and training. Note that these processes were developed to suit all organizations globally. It is recommended that these processes be altered with respect to the micro and macro environment of the organization. For instance, an organization can add more stages when selecting senior employees so that professionalism and competence is achieved.

Several organizations have worked so hard to ensure that its human resource enjoys their stay in the organization. In these organizations employees have been provided with all services that they need to satisfy their welfare requirement. Good fruits for these efforts have yielded characteristics such as organization citizenship behaviour, high productivity, job satisfaction, no absenteeism, and no employee turnovers. On the contrary, there are several organization that are still resisting efforts made to better employee welfare. In these organizations, negative human resource behaviours such as employee absenteeism, high rates of employee turnovers, defiant workplace behaviour, and employee strikes are common. This organization records low production rates every year. Realistically, change is inevitable. The more this organization will go on resisting change the more they will lose. In addition to this, the government, trade unions, and civil societies should come in and push these organizations to accept this positive change.   

Besides this, studies have indicated that the government, employers, and trade unions have made efforts to better the conditions of human resources. However, all this efforts have been directed at helping employees. Note that almost all employees have a personal concern that affects their performance in the workplace. Therefore, employee welfare should be narrowed down from a general perspective to a narrow individual perspective.

Just like any other discipline in the current world, human resource is highly dynamic. The current human resource is characterised by factors such as workforce diversity, response to globalization, and changing demographics. The current management in organizations has an increasing foreign assignment. Therefore, management has to improvise methods to different types of human resources. It should cultivate a culture that gives room for the human resource to accommodate members from different cadres.

In addition to this, human resource should be in a position to accommodate different people from different countries. Workforce diversity encourages a scenario whereby people who differ in gender, ethnic groups, physical abilities as well as psychological ability. Additionally, interests of different age brackets in today’s workforce should be accommodated. Many studies have indicated that today’s workforce is made up of many old employees than the young ones. Old employees prefer staying long in the workplace because they have financial pressure. On the other hand, young employees prefer spending a little time in their organizations because they are more loyal to self and relationships. Managers should ensure, therefore, that all this interests are catered for fairly

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