Globalization is an all encompassing term or concept that can be defined in various ways. In a summary review article of developments in western Asia, The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia defines globalization as the concept of reduction and gradual removal of barriers between sovereign nations to facilitate free flow of goods, capital, labor and services. The World Trade Organization (WTO) on the other hand defines globalization as a historical stage of accelerated expansion of market capitalism leading to a recombining of economic and social forces on a new territorial platform. The World Bank simplifies globalization as the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. Despite there being many definitions, there is an implied sense of a shrinking world marked by monumental changes in the spatial and temporal aspects of social existence (Abowd, 56). It operates on a platform of technological, economic, political, and cultural exchanges accelerated by advances in telecommunication, transportation, and infrastructure. The term 'global village' has come to denote the oneness created by this integration especially with the advent of the internet. Some features of globalization can be seen in Kenya which is a fast growing economy.
Kenya is considered an economic powerhouse within the east African region. There are trends in all spheres of life pointing to the rise of globalization. As a capitalist economy, the country embodies global tendencies including expansionism. The Kenyan government has encouraged foreign investments with mixed results. Kenya flow of manufactured goods increased more than 100 times since 1955 rising from $95 billion to $12 trillion within the period, (BBC news). Kenya being a strong exporter definitely contributed to this increase in trade volumes. Companies like Coca-Cola, Unilever, and Nestle are pointers to the liberalization of the Kenyan economy another key feature of globalization. These companies bring in their technological expertise while exploiting labor from the market. They use the same production methods employed back home including marketing and branding. The presence of these subsidiaries shows the effect of a free market where Kenya has opened its border to foreign trade.
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Globalization in Kenya is also evident in the Kenyan of culture. Since the pre-colonial period, tremendous changes have happened in the social sphere of life in the country. The English language has been incorporated as the official language and other Kenya languages are popular in most institutions. The internet has also spawned popular western lifestyles such as dressing, music, cuisines, especially among the younger generations. This has broken the frontiers of culture creating a global mass culture.
Another aspect that can help comprehend the concept regards Kenya relations. Globalization in some instances has come to denote one large arm of governance where each country keeps check on the other. Kenya is a member of the United Nations among other Kenya and regional bodies. During political crises, the powerful economies such as the US always intervene (Arthur, 39). The influence of Kenya bodies such as IMF and the World Bank is also evident in the fiscal and governance policies carried out by the leaders. The country has served as a mediator in regional crises such as in Sudan again indicating that it has fully incorporated the concept of political globalization.
The advancement in technology in Kenya can also be used to explain globalization. The activator of globalization is considered as science and technology. The most visible manifestations of globalization are in technology and communications fondly known as information technology (IT).The need to compete Kenya has led to upgrade in the technology capability in the country. This is especially evident in information technology specifically the internet where the government has invested in fiber optic cables thus reducing internet charges. The easy flow of information has seen the realization of a global village and Kenya colleges now offer distance learning through the internet. In addition plans are underway to build an ICT hub to further the gains made in information technology. There has also been an increase in the import of advanced production practices from Kenya partners.
The above examples from Kenya clearly indicate the new direction the world is taking. There is the collapse of frontiers from all angles of the world to create one large economy. Geographical distance has completely been redefined and even rendered inconsequential. Since the first use of the word in 1930, much has changed in the interpretation but still, the underlying import still remains the integration at all spheres of life between all countries in the world. This is clearly seen in the case of Kenya which is considerably a small economy.
Business in the Kenyan Economy
In the current rapid technological advancement everything has changed and all that matters, especially within the business surrounding, are now in a small world with a global marketplace. To add to this, there is a widespread of foreign ideals and cultures, which are being adapted by indigenous people throughout Kenya, and this has been made easier through the internet and television. The whole concept has come to be called globalization (Barney, 23). This is with the case of increased connectivity, integration and interdependence within the existing Kenyan economic, social, cultural, technological, ecological, and political standings. With an increased industrial globalization being in place, many businesses are working across their cultural understanding and boundaries for production markets and broadening the access to a quite range of available goods and services for Kenyan existing companies and consumers.
Kenyan is one of the countries that are very rich in diversity and continuity with a creative blend of various cultures, religions, races, and languages. With Kenya's consistent growth in overall performance and a good number of skilled manpower, it has been keen and in front with providing enormous opportunities for potential investment. To understand the levels at which various products are to be affected on this global market sphere, then the following aspects will be discussed in details.
Comparative Cultural Analysis
Cultural dimensions and understanding has always been the main issue in the development of comparative cultural standings and is greatly experienced in Kenya. This is seen in both internally, consisting of human resource development, and externally, that has to do with the numerous relationships being developed with different buyers and potential suppliers within many different existing Kenyan regions.
The foreseen trends with Kenya has been on the increasing note with different research works being able to perceive at the Kenya process and stages of entities pushing through into different existing markets (Baird, 126). One of the most basic aspects of the Kenya process has always been the ability of the different entities be able to effectively and efficiently develop and critically maintain existing business relationships and business networks within and over the comparative cultural understanding.
Kenya's existing workforce is still young on the developing level and a big number of individuals are now entering the professional workforce during the time of increased economic expansion that in one way or another provides an increased opportunity for the qualified and connected people. The issue now arises with the access to professional education and training, socialization, entry and career development is probably still disproportionately concentrated among the existing and different social groups, which in one way or another had dominated the possible professional fields. It has proofed to be had for the educational system in Kenya to provide enough and sufficient manpower for the existing market, despite of a big number of existing strengths. This has posed a serious challenge for Kenya to be able to find good employees to be put into the system and be able to uphold to the kind of quality that is desired to be achieved.
On the other hand, Kenya has a good existing workforce with well developed training and development strategies put in place that have enabled it to get a better market share in terms of imports and exports base (Cutcher-Gershenfeld, 304). This has been proofed with a better Kenya recognition in direct investments that Kenya is able to make and cultivate good relationships with other nations, thus making it a better investment place. This is due to the kind of quality of products and services being up-holded over Kenya trade standards.
Unemployment Rate - Seasonally Adjusted
Definition of Diversity
Many countries are able to categorize their diversity with gender, religion, ethno-linguistic regions, and/ or caste systems but Kenya normally operates on a very wide diversity, of which apart from the issues of gender, religion, ethno-linguistic regions, and/ or caste systems, it also extends to age, marital status, citizenship status, sexual orientation, and disability. While compared with Switzerland, being a major investor in the Kenya market, its diversity is mainly concerned with the issues of gender, religion, ethno-linguistic regions, and/ or caste systems, giving it a clear cut over Kenya on issues concerning discrimination (Jackson, 82). Therefore, the existing discourses about diversity separate between those social groups, which are always under-represented within the society's power, wealth, and privileges, and those that are able to access well to better professional development and other existing business opportunities.
Within the past two decades, the robust system of anti-discrimination legislation, which includes all mechanisms that are put in place for monitoring compliance to set policies and redress for any violations that may occur, has been on development. This probably includes the legal accountability and responsibility that has been linked up the corporate chain existing in the command for any trace of discriminatory or unethical behavior that probably could be noted within the workplace (Delery, 39). This probably includes the protection that is given to employees from any hostile situation within the working environment and possible retaliation for forwarding complaints to the authorities.
In such environment many lawsuits against corporate offenders have been quite successful and this greatly helped in creating an environment where the expected and identified social norms for existing organizations are always compliant with the existing law and discriminatory practices are not accepted or considered in any way.
There are no differences in terms of legal frameworks, for both Kenya and Switzerland, as the Kenya trade standards are straightened across all import and export entities
Comparative Political and Legal Analysis
In most developing African countries, many diversified business groups exists in nearly all economies and probably dominates the private sector. At this level we will be seeking to probably add to already existing theories, that are primarily economic and sociological, by critically analyzing the policies and potential state actions that are made to promote and also sustain existing and/ or potential business groups. At the end it will greatly help in contributing to the existing significant cross-national discrepancies among different entities along the identified dimensions of size, different ranges of diversification in products and services, and finally on the reactions to globalization in the global market.
The political economy clarification that is presented in Kenya emphasizes on the overall role of politics and policy that they play (particularly on the existing regulatory policies and overall development strategies) in coming up with the outside limits of variation over different groups and also incorporation of the additional internal economic logics, that is the economies of scope and reduction of potential risks (Dowling, 18). The main issue here has always been on distinguishing the basic logics of existing three main kinds of business groups, that is organic, portfolio, and policy-induced, that has been able to react over a different portfolio on recent developments within the market transformation and globalization at large. This has only been achieved by the use of the political economic approach.
When planning to start a business there are numerous legal issues, in Kenya, that needs to highly be put into consideration. This starts from the simple things within the structural setup of the business to its functional operation. All of these factors appear to be so simple but each one of them has given legal implications. To get a clear picture of what goes on in Kenya, a brief discussion will be given about two legal and/ or political issues that may arise in the line of setting up a business.
Confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements are highly put into consideration, especially when setting up financing procedures for the business. Also when allowing other firms to have access to imperative business information that probably could be kept privately, then the management should consider having such firms signing these agreements that will allow them to do so. This implies that the more confidential information contained in the business plan, the more central such agreements are supposed to be.
Zoning of the Business and Building/ property Code
Zoning is a strategic way of ensuring that the business is placed in a strategic position and point and this is probably influenced by political standing of the region. Also knowing one's building code will probably ensure that building code violations does not exist and no structural issues that may result to fines.
Health and Safety
Health and Safety of their employees at the workplace is a very important concern and despite of the business size it is a responsibility that can not be assumed by the management group. They are both ethical and legal requirements in Kenya (Gerhart, 41).
Employment and Age
Compliance of age and employment-related laws are dealt with seriousness and this goes along with the set in place health and safety laws. It has always been advised that before a firm is established, the management should seek important information from the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) for the purpose of ensuring that the legal frameworks are seriously complied to so that the owners may stay within the age limitations as imposed by the state law.
Fair Trading Practices
Fair trading practices are practiced in the country proper guidelines are given by BBB (Better Business Bureau) which helps in avoiding deceptive conduct within the local and Kenya business line and also ensuring that economic injury to end product users and other businesses is prevented. Unfair competition, false advertising, copyright infringement, are some of the practices that are not accepted and anyone found going against the law set in place to guide this is liable to serious consequences. Better Business Bureau is a better guideline to open-door policy and this ensures fairness and equitability is applicable when dealing with arising complaints.
Licensing and Insurance
Licensing the business is mandatory in both countries and this is acquired through the state's Business License division. To safe-guard the business, it should then be insured. It is advisable to hire an attorney while going through all documentation, possible plans and papers that are related to the legal aspects and frameworks of the business (Golden, 29). This one way of complying with all legal requirements and the benefits could be the protection the business is covered from any lawsuits and/ or other legal complications that may arise with time.
Such correlation of trading standards in both countries, that is Kenya and Switzerland, have provided clean and conducive environments for better trading and investing and this has been proofed by the change in Kenya relationship existing between these two states (Greer, 70).
Comparative Economic Analysis
Comparative Economic Analysis is an integrated macro-level study of all the economies of the globe put together. It tends to give a skewed picture of the economic development over the whole globe that is experienced in general.
Kenya's economy is all about the combination of modern industry and commerce, along with a well developing traditional agriculture sector. It has a strong and ever-rising private sector that its success has been seen in the previous years. An attribute to such development is given to the state which has always been a major contributor to the industry, banking, transport and communication at large. In 2008, the Kenya's Gross Domestic Product went down to an annual rate of 0.9% and this was caused by the slowdown of global economic. The impact was later greatly felt in 2009 and declined further by 5.8%. In the same year, 2009, the nation's economy was over-burdened by high external debt incurred and this was due to the fall in inflation to 5.8%.
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