Ecological services can be defined as the benefits to individuals because of having a healthy environment (Chiras, 2006). These benefits accrue to all living organisms such as animals, plants, and not human beings alone. Examples of ecological services include clean air and water, diversity of ecology, decomposition of wastes, recharging of ground water through wetlands, mitigation of greenhouse gasses, having natural vegetation, soil conservation, regeneration of vegetation, and crop pollination among others.
This concept has been of considerable concern because the significant loss has resulted from ignoring ecological services. This is more so in the rural and suburban areas because when land is converted from their original state, they lose its originality thus affecting the desired benefits. Provision of ecological services can be done through regulation, good stewardship on land, and offering incentives through existing programs. To ensure that quality ecological services are offered, policy tools such as regulation, compliance programs, voluntary services, one time, and direct payments should be implemented.
The concept of environmental true cost refers to a strategy that creates a pool of funds enough for the continuing maintenance of the ecosystem (Chiras, 2006). In this strategy, the funds contributed should be for the maintenance of the environment and should not be channeled to other uses. For instance, in Canada, citizens pay some small rates for water; this is because of subsidies they get from the government. This little rate with the subsidies of the government is used to treat and distribute water. The citizens are then in a position of enjoying the benefit of clean water and in addition, a healthy environment.
In conclusion, true cost pricing strategy helps to ensure that individuals enjoy a healthy and natural society. In addition, through the incentives, it helps to reduce taxes on things like personal incomes, and rather increase taxes on unhealthy activities such as pollution. As a result, it will lead to prosperity that is reliable to the citizens and thus enjoyment of reliable prosperity advantages (Chiras, 2006).
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