Morpheme is defined as the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning in the grammar of a language. Morphemes are made up of phonemes (smallest unit of sound with distinctive linguistic), and grapheme which are the written language smallest unit). On their own, many Morphemes cannot stand as words (R.I.C., 2008). A morpheme is said to be free if it can stand on its own, or if it is used along with a free morpheme then it is referred as bound. Example of morphemes Unbearable, this word can be divided into two morphemes; "un-"this is a bound morpheme, "bear" happens to be a free morphemes and able is a suffix (R.I.C., 2008).
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Types of morphemes
Free morphemes, these morphemes can stand on their own i.e. they are free morphemes. The example is like dog. Bound morphemes, these are morphemes that appear together with other morphemes (Jackson, Amvela, 2000). Bound morphemes usually tend to be suffixes or prefixes. I.e. -able. Derivational morphemes are morphemes that can be added to other words to create another word. Example of derivational morphemes is the addition of"-less" to power to give "powerless" (R.I.C., 2008). Inflectional morphemes these are morphemes that modify a word's, number, tense, aspect without changing the actual meaning of the word. The word dog can be added an "s" to sound as "dogs." Allomorphs these are alternatives of morphemes, whereby the plural maker in the English language is often recognized as /-s/, /-z/, or it can be /-I z/ (R.I.C., 2008).
Antonym is a word with an opposite meaning to another word. Opposite words are those that have no binary relationship in the opposite pairs example male is to female, down is to up, short is to long and so on. The concept of incompatibility refers to the fact that a particular word in an opposite means that it is not a [member of the other pair. Types of antonym are; interactive, satisfactives and counteractive.
Homophones these are words or a group of words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings, spelling or origin (R.I.C., 2008). Creole language, this is a nativized meaning that (it is acquired by children) language which is stable with pidgin as the origin (Jackson, Amvela, 2000). Speech act this is a technical term used in linguistics and philosophy of language. It is an act that is performed through making an utterance, as making a promise to someone, giving a warning, or greeting. This is the use of language to perform some actions. This can be something that people can do or make to happen. It can also be an acknowledgement act in case of someone celebrating an occasion (Philip, 1975).
The phonetic transcription of a sound is not easily determined especially when words are not used in isolation. Therefore the pronunciation of any word is determined by its surrounding sounds and may differ from one speaker to the other. Phonetic representation of such words is determined by use of phonological rules which exist in every language and learned subconsciously. The rules are important in understanding the use of different sounds. These rules include the following: assimilation rules, dissimilation rules nondistinctive features, epenthesis and metathesis. As a learning tool, these rules are essential especially for non-native speakers of a language. Assimilation rules for instance describe a process in which a sound becomes familiar to neighbouring sounds. For example when nasalization takes place, nasal consonants become more assimilated. On the other hand, insertion refers to introduction of new sounds that are not present in the pronunciation (Chomsky, 2006). For example slow pronunciation of the word hamster gives it a "p" making one to hear "hampster". This can be quite confusing especially to non native English speakers. In general, phonological rules remove ambiguity which arises in pronunciation.
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