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Free «Behavior across Lifespan» Essay Sample

The Erickson’s stages of development consist of the following. From birth to the age of approximately a year, this constitutes the infancy stage that involves the basic trust and mistrust as the psychosocial challenges. Between 1 to 3 years, autonomy against shame and uncertainty forms the psychosocial demands for this toddler stage. The early childhood is the stage between 3 and 5 years with imitativeness and guilt against each other. Industry versus inferiority constitute the middle childhood (6 to 11 of age). Then, adolescence follows between the ages of 11 and 20 where identity and role disparity are the psychosocial challenges. Between the ages of 21 and 40, close acquaintance and separation are the challenges where else procreation and sluggishness are the main task demands during the middle adulthood stage between the ages of 40 and 65. Finally, late adult is the stage over 65 years of age where self-esteem and complete loss of hope become the main tasks (Hutchison, 2003, p. 132). Through all these stages, proper understanding of the psychosocial challenges is fundamental; as they determine progression to the next stage in development, where the stages’ characters help create advertisements.



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The development of trust and mistrust during infancy (from birth to 1.5 years) is very important at the first stage where infants have to activate their feeling of their demands for fulfillment by the surrounding to know the place is safe. An emotional unity with adults forms the basis shape of close and affectionate relations later in life. Consistency is crucial in fulfilling both physical and inner demands. For instance, infants cry to demand something (Shaffer & Kipp, 2009, p. 165). If anything happens at this stage such that a sense of mistrust develops, infants develop unconfirmed beliefs concerning the world and retract.

During toddler stage, personal freedom and dishonor as well as feel of uncertainty are the tasks. The young ones should build self-confidence as well as ability to dominate them and the surroundings using their maturing physical movements, otherwise they will sink in to shame and uncertainty, as they cannot have control of themselves and the world. To illustrate this, an abused child at this age, develops uncertainty of the surrounding and ends lacking awareness of domestic violence that might happen later in life (Scannapieco, 2005, p. 69).

Between 3 and 5 years in development, the early childhood stage has enterprising against guiltiness as the demanding tasks. Children must have a growing ability to organize and start action on their own or else they become guilty because they cannot initiate anything on their own. From the case of Malik, 6, he proves to be energetic and interesting child who takes control and organizes his peers trying to avoid being guilty of conflict (Hutchison, 2003, p. 200).

For the middle childhood, ages of 6 and 11, industry and sense of lowness create the demanding challenges and to succeed in development in this stage, they should exhibit ability to control and finish their works or they develop the sense of inferiority or inability. To Rhoda, her physical appearance makes her get low and lack control of her life and she ends up being dirty. To counter this situation, she becomes straight on her feeling about her teacher (Hutchison, 2003, p. 202).

Adolescence is the next stage between 11 and 20 in development. To resolve the conflicts arising in this stage, which are individuality and individual disparity role, the adolescents should build on confidence to define themselves and their destiny. Failure to do this will lead to being perplexed about who they are in life. Whenever parent-child relationship discontinues during early adolescence, it can rebuild later bringing a sense of knowing their identity (Shaffer & Kipp, 2009, p. 227).

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Being intimate and a sense of separation forms the young adulthood stage in development constituting of the ages between 21 and 40. To succeed in this stage the immature adults should elaborate their ability to entrust to intense companionship with other people. If this does not happen, then these young adults they will feel isolated. To illustrate this, Steve aged 38 is an Italian-American and unmarried. His behavior is worrying his friends whether he can never find a stable relationship. His lack of stable relationships and girls generally leaves him isolated and he settles in finding women at a different place (Ashcraft, 2008, p. 132).

Middle adulthood constitutes of the age bracket between 40 and 65 where the challenges include procreation and dullness. This stage entails the development of the ability to surpass personal interest to help the coming generation and whenever this fails, they will stagnate in their endeavors. For example, Bob is aged 56 and through his generosity, he makes a living from it helping the next generation understand their life (Ashcraft, 2008, p. 10).

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The final stage in development is the late adulthood that composes of the ages after 65 and their tasks are self-conceit and complete loss of hope. Being the latest stage in development, moral excellence and satisfaction are important concerning their past life. If they fail to achieve this, they develop a feel of total lose of hope in their life. For instance, Betty aged 68 surveys her life, all through her marriage. She saw her children go to college, and began their own families. She feels unsatisfied and wishes to divorce her husband. She does not have the confidence and feels insecure on her own (Ashcraft, 2008, p. 12). She despairs on her husband who only comes home on weekends. She then tries to accept all the changes in her life trying to establish her contentment.

In conclusion, Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development helps understand different stages in life as these characters help design advertisements. From the challenges on each stage, weigh each other to determine whether to progress to next stage in development. From the characters depicted, advertisement firms can design advertisements that meet the demands of the public.


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