A) Describe the state of civil-military relations in Peru since 2002, especially the progress or the lack thereof in building a system of democratic control of the armed forces.
The military balance in Peru was created between 2001 and 2002. This was the time of President Fujimori. The president was the head of the state and at the same time the head of government. Before then, Peru revealed a troubled pattern of civil-military relations. The elected government along with civilian and military organizations abused human rights to make sure they remained in power. Numerous presidential candidates used Military Police to cheat in the presidential vote count. This ensured that the person who had excessive government influence won. Such techniques as stacking of judicial and electoral bodies with the government loyalty, unilateral amnesty for military and police, the thwarting of a referendum on an unconstitutional third successive election of the president, and the use of computer machinations to change the presidential vote count have been developed in the course of time. Bribes also existed in the civilian bodies in order to ensure that the majority in congress got swayed, manipulate Military Police appointments, and guarantee compliant armed forces that would serve the government by intimidating the opposition.
When the democratic forces took control, they arrested the elected regime and checked for the scores of corrupt politicians, military, and police. This led to the arrest of president Fujimori in 2005. Since then, the military has been trying hard to keep a democratic control.
The Toledo government continued Peru’s battle for democracy, a battle that was started by President Paniagua. Toledo fought for media freedom and recommendation of Truth and Reconciliation Commission. TRC’s main aim was to oversee all human rights violations committed before 2000. The military later accepted its position as a subordinate to the civilian authority. Thus, it has been working towards redefining its mission within that context. The armed forces have been given limited power over the institutional capacity that existed in the decade before.
B) Analyze what should be done to enhance and/or institutionalize democratic control of the Peruvian military over the next decade.
A lot can be done to improve the democratic control of the Peruvian military. One of the crucial decisions that can be taken is offering the military refined working regulations. This will help in guiding military officials of what they should do. Thus, they will not engage in activities that are not within their powers.
In addition, the improvement of working conditions can assist in enhancing democratic control. This will also help military officials to have enough of the basic needs, which may tempt them to accept corruption. Most of the corruption cases occur because the bribed person has less of what s/he needs and thinks. By taking the bribe, they will be able to cater for their needs. Thus, offering an attractive payment to the military will be of much help in diminishing corruption.
Another crucial move that can help in enhancing democratic control of the Peruvian military is the formulation of basic rules to punish those who do not adhere to democracy. Punishment to the law breakers will discourage any other military official intending to violate the law. The law should be stable and strict. Additionally, increasing the punishment given to the ones found guilty will help impose fear on any intended law breaking.
C) Recommend to Secretary Clinton what steps, if any, the United States might take to assist Peru in enhancing and/or institutionalizing democratic control in Peru.
Some of the main issues that Peru is facing today include solving cases in relation to boundaries. This happens when people suspect others to have settled on lands that do not belong to them. Peruvian army plays a pivotal role to its citizens. The military restores order between the two neighbors in conflict every time the country faces danger of any kind. It can also intrude to sort an issue when people from another race or culture enter the country. Peruvian army offers emergency services, which include looking for missing children, medical crises and suicide attempts.
The United States can help Peru in enhancing democratic control including assistance in fighting corruption. This can be helpful in combating crimes, especially those which involve demoralization. The US can also help in providing enough funds to make better payments to the military and keep them away from corruption. Another substantial role that the US can play in assisting Peru in enhancing democratic control includes training the military. This will help in securing Peruvian army so that the government could call in the military whenever needed.
Thirdly, the US can also offer justice support to those who have not followed democracy. More often than not, people who violate the rule of democracy are enormously rich. Bringing them down to the law requires a lot of effort and sources of finance. Certainly, this arrangement will require more than Peru can provide. Thus, the US can help in providing the finances needed. They can also help in offering professional help, which can be of significant value in instilling justice.
Lastly, the US can help Peru in enhancing democracy through increasing its investments. This will help Peru to have a stable economic background enabling government officials to offer better salaries to the military. In such a way, the military men having better salary will work towards democracy improvement. They will be motivated to work.