Table of Contents
Demographics are important since they are applied in sociology, marketing, and public policy.
Population always changes with time and is affected by three demographic variables. They include;
The common demographics that are studied include;
Demographic Variables that result to change in population
Demographic Variables Affecting Population
The birth rate determines the rate of increase in population since more individuals are born. The higher the Birth rate the higher the population.
The Crude Birth Rate is a figure that represents the number of births annually for every 1000 persons. The fertility of the population is a great factor that affects birth when a population is fertile there are more births; this is gauged by the number of women tin the population hat are in the childbearing age.
The fertility rate will determine how high the birth rate is;; and is co-related to factors such as age of marriage, childhood mortality and literacy levels,.
The death rate of the population also affect the demographics this is because the rate reduces the population. The Crude Death Rate is the death in a given year for every 1000 people. The death rates regulates the population since it is the only way to eliminate the people. The higher the death rate the lower the population.
Migration is a demographic variable that affect population in that people will move from one place to another and hence increase or reduce population. This is normally common in the stages of demographic transitions where emigration reduces the population.
People may move from rural to urban areas in search for better services or facilities, or in search of employment. This is the most common migration where people are concentrated in the urban centers.
Stages of demographic Transition
There are four stages
Stage one: Also known as the pre-industrial society and is characterized by high death and birth rates that are at a balance.
Stage Two: commonly in a developing country and is characterized by a lower death rate leading to expanding of the population.
Stage three: is characterized by a drop in birth rate; mainly due to contraception access, urbanization, wages increases, reduced food, high literacy levels of women, and social changes.
Stage four:Is characterized by low birth and death rates. The population is now reduced due to high urbanization, chronic diseases and lifestyle changes.