Free «Sexual Reproduction, Cell Division and Genetic Variability» Essay Sample

Meiosis refers to the process that plays a central role in genetic variability through the opportunity of combining new genes from the parents’ gametes; sexual reproductive cells that have usually have a haploid number of chromosomes called egg and sperm. In a phase known as metaphase, there is autonomous assortment of chromosomes thereby making the orientation of the bivalent at the equator of the chromosome spindle to be arbitrary. When the degree of bivalence the chromosomes are relatively high, the possibility of combinations is increased. Subsequently, autonomous pulling of bivalent occurs in another stage called Anaphase1 (Layman, 2003).

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Chiasma formation is related to crossing over; an event that plays a significant function in bringing about genetic variability. The Crossing over which happens in prophase results to combination of new genes after homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information. Homologous chromosomes are those chromosomes that carry the same genes and have the same size.

Meiosis refers to a process that is exhibited by all organisms that are known to reproduce sexually. During the process of fertilization, the two gamete nuclei, that is, sperm and egg  come together and  fuse. These gametes are haploid in nature (n) i.e. they have a single set of homologous chromosomes each. After the two gametes fuse, the resulting zygote, is diploid (2n) has the two full sets of chromosomes. Therefore, the zygote (2n) is genetically different from both parents (n). This explains the reason why an offspring can never have a genetic makeup similar to that of parents.

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