According to Plotnik and Kouyoumdjian (2010), the cerebral cortex consists of four sections called lobes. These are the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes have different functions that range from the way we perceive to the way we reason.
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The Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe is situated in the front part of the brain. It is associated with the way we reason and use motor skills. It is also associated with higher-level cognition and the use of expressive language. Besides, the frontal lobe is useful in determining and shaping a personality. As a result, damage of the frontal lobe might lead to various changes in sexual habits, socialization, attention and increased risk-taking. The motor cortex lies behind the frontal lobe, next to the carnal sulcus. This part of the brain gets information from various brain lobes and uses this information to initiate body movements.
The Parietal Lobe
This lobe is in the middle part of the brain. It is associated with processing sensory information from other parts of the body. Its functions include visual perception, recognition, perceiving stimuli and sensing pain, pressure and touch. The somatosensory cortex located in this lobe is useful for the processes of the body senses. Damage to the lobe might lead to problems associated with verbal memory, problems with language (aphasia), problems in controlling eye gaze and abnormal perception of objects (agnosia).
The Temporal Lobe
It is located in the bottom part of the brain. It consists of two lobes located on the both sides of the brain (left and right). It is the location for the primary auditory cortex used for the interpretation of sounds and languages. The Temporal Lobe also contains the hippocampus, a part associated with memories. Functions of the temporal lobes involve differentiating smells and sounds. It also controls visual memory (right lobe) and verbal memory (left lobe). Damage to this lobe leads to memory loss and problems in speech perception.
The Occipital Lobe
It is situated at the back part of the brain. It is associated with interpretation of visual stimuli and information. It consists of the primary visual cortex responsible for receiving and interpreting information from eyes. Damage of the occipital lobe causes visual problems like difficulty in recognizing objects, problems in identifying colors as well as trouble in recognizing words. As a result, disorders of this lobe can result to visual illusions.
Significance of the Information
The information about these four lobes of the brain is crucial in understanding various behavioral problems in the society (Calvin, 1996). For instance, the counselor who has this information, can refer a person suffering from delusions, memory loss or paranoia for further medical checkup by a physician. In addition, knowledge about how the four lobes define behaviors and activities may help the counselor to choose the right intervention to help a client. For instance, if screening reveals that the client has a damaged occipital lobe, the counselor might advise the client to seek medical help and not psychological assistance.
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