Question 1: Barriers of the Implementation of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights
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The universal declaration of human rights by the UN national assembly on the 10th December 1948 called for the adoption of the declaration by all member states without any exceptions on the basis of their political and economic status in recognition of the dignity and the rights of all human kind in the member states (General Assembly of the United Nations, 1948) However, the implementation of this declaration has been met with several barriers due to several economic, political, environmental and social cultural aspects. According to Normand and Zaidi 2008, globalization phenomenon which is generally interpreted as the integration of local economies into the global economic system, excludes human rights from its illegal and policy framework, and has been subject to interventions of the world's richest economies hence impeding the realization of economic, social and developmental rights of the poor economies. With the emergency of terrorism and counter terrorism especially after the 9/11 2001 US terrorist attack, fundamental; concepts of human rights declarations such as freedom and democracy were compromised creating an ideological gap that threatened the universality of the human rights as well as the integrity of the UN as an international institution (Normand and Zaidi, 2008). Politically, the US dominance on other countries has led to violation of human rights as a number of rival countries including Iraq, Iran and Zimbabwe among others persistently violate the same rights in pursuit of their ideologies on the war against the perceived US political dominance (Normand and Zaidi, 2008). In support of this view, Freeman (2002) argues that the principle, practice and exercise of state sovereignty are strong barriers to the implementation of universal human rights standards. The cultural diversity of the world with the legitimacy of many cultural practices that violate human has acted as strong barrier to the implementation of the UN declaration of human rights (Freeman, 2002).
Question 2: the Punk- rock and indigenous groups in Peru as social movements: Their objectives and strategies
Social groups are characterized by collective actions with the weakening of the individual personality differences and adoption of a unified crowd principle of action (Oberschall, 1995). Individuals in a social movement have a sense of belief that they have problems and that they are deprived of some rights or services by the society and that the only solution to their problem lies within collective action (Oberschall, 1995). Often the movement is precipitated by a specific event like the case of the indigenous groups in Peru protesting against a government policy aimed at opening the Amazon for exploitation without consulting the local people. The Punk-rock movement is opposed to interference of their activities by law enforcers in response to their practices of drug abuse. Both the indigenous group movement and the Punk- rock movement exercise a high degree of submissiveness to their manipulative leaders whom they follow blindly leading to involvement in evil actions like protests and drug abuse (Oberschall, 1995). The Punk- rock movement is seeking recognition by the society through unique hair style and music, living in isolation as well as their unlawful practices including drug abuse, vulgar and abusive language. The indigenous groups in Peru by way of holding demonstrations and engaging in battles with the police want the government to respect their rights by consulting them on the implementation of policies that affect them.
Question 3: Agendas of the Punk- rock and the indigenous groups and the universal declaration of human rights
The universal declaration of human rights has played a major role in the articulation of the agendas of the punk-rock and the indigenous groups. With reference to article 6 and 9 of the declaration of human rights, the punk group members feel that they have a right to recognition anywhere while the indigenous group feels that they deserve to be heard and that it is unlawful for them to be arbitrarily arrested (General Assembly of the United Nations, 1948). On the contrary, the two groups have acted in violation of the human rights declarations that seek to protect them. In reference to their practices of publicly claimed acts of drug abuse, culturally the Punk-rock group acts in violation of the rule of law and their rights of freedom by engaging in unlawful activities. The indigenous groups of Peru in their opposition against government policies aimed at opening the region which is thought as unproductive for exploitation projects aimed at benefitting the government and its citizens. In this case, the economic, political and environmental aspects come into play in perpetrating the violation of the Human rights declarations (Freeman, 2002).