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Free «Castello's Outlook on Language,


The aim of this study is to examine if the language use of the writing Catcher in the Rye was expressed in its Persian version or not. To achieve this, first the linguistic features have to be described: an account of the language found in this story was put forward by centering on a well-known article written about the language Donald. P Costello “Catcher in the Rye” in the year 1959.Of the unusual features of the language, the ideas such as: loosely dangling phrases, repetition, grammatical elements, swear words and slangy expressions were taken to be examined in the Persian versions. In so far as the loosely dangling expressions were concerned, thirty cases were taken from the narrative and contrasted with their Persian version.

In the case of other concepts, fifteen cases were examined for the grammatical features, 15 cases for the slang expressions, 15 cases of repetition, and 15 cases of swear words were used. The outcomes of the study indicated that not any of the translators’ works has done well in expressing the above mentioned concepts. Despite of this these linguistic styles are studied separately, 15 cases are not sufficient to make a sound conclusion regarding which translator did an excellent job in transmitting unusual linguistic features. For this reason, a general inference would be made regarding the class of the translation, taking into consideration all the ninety cases jointly. Nevertheless, in general, it can be concluded that Mohammad Najafi the second translator, has done an excellent job compared to the other translators in transmitting the linguistic features of the narrative .It may be probable that the two additional translators have done an excellent job contrasted to Mohamad Najafi in depicting the story’s content rather than its language. Lastly, it can be inferred that comparative study can be done in many other foreign languages bearing in mind the linguistic features talked about by Costello.



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Holden most often in his writing leaves sentences dangling by using words like "or anything" and "and all."  He often uses those phrases to prolong particular indescribable actions or emotion even though there is no impact whatsoever to the expressions. He also has many expressions that appear constantly throughout the book. In certain places, the expressions used only serve to make him more realistic, while in other places they try to strengthen his values. He has repeatedly remarked on his detestation toward phonies. This is one thing that the writer hates the most. Holden also affirms his remarks by repeating them twice for example "She admires me a lot. I imply she's quite used to me." He utilizes different styles and phrases to factually back his comments, consequently stopping him from appearing like a phony.

The Holden's speech generally stays away obscene and vulgar. Whenever he utters words such as "ass," it is simply teenage vernacular for an organ or part of the anatomy of human beings. Holden simply uses the word "Ass" convey his ideas better and does not use it to be offensive. He uses a lot of religious vocabulary which are not applied that way. For instance he says "hell" to mean "to a great extent" while describing something. He makes use words that relate to the divine without meaning to be blasphemous but just as parts of his speaking. Holden reserves "Jesus Christ" or "Chrissake" for more emotional situations and never uses it unless he is deeply angered or depressed. While most of the words  used by Holden may not be appropriate, he does not attempt to be sacrilegious. The writer is simply utilizing the language to portray Holden as a normal teenager and to show Holden's mood.

Several critics though had a view that the story should indeed be banned but it endured every obstacle to still become the greatest novel in the time after the World War II. The writer’s brilliant use of language all through the novel made the main personality Holden Caulfield human. By accurately portraying the teenage boy, a reader of this novel is able to familiarize him or herself with Holden's idiosyncrasies in a more realistic way.

Purpose and audience

The particular envisioned audience and purpose of the novel is not clear and surely its reclusive writer is not in a rush to reveal the motives behind its conception. A widely and critically accepted  purpose of this novel is to show the frustrations of young people in their adolescence through to the increasingly complicated and seemingly perplexing adulthood. The intended audience is likely to be the youths or adolescents since the novel is most popular in this age group and has the ability to evoke the frustrations and emotions of teenagers.

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Sample Introductions and Thesis Statements: 

In the volume, written by Mr. Salinger, the key character Holden feels secluded, even when he is crowded circumstances and hence increasing his isolation. He separates himself subconsciously for the reason that he does not intend to get upset again like he was hurt when Allie his brother died. However, regardless of how much Holden detaches himself he still ends up getting upset at last. In this story authored by Salinger, the author uses the theme isolation to express that individual try and detach them in the manner they do not hurt themselves. Nevertheless, they end up upsetting themselves nonetheless and always sensing loneliness and depressed for the reason that of that they segregate themselves.


In the story the author narrates of Holden Caulfield, a 17 year-old boy that has been ejected from prep school. Caulfield does not want his father and mother to know about his expulsion, he therefore makes a decision to go to New York to consume some time before travelling home for the Christmas vacation. He narrates his adventures in the city, talks about how “phony” people in the city are, and is engulfed in a steady condition of loneliness. This is a classic story authored by Salinger.

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A deep research and look at specific information, facts, or critical responses reveal the controversy of the writer of the content of the novel. Critics and students alike find this book intriguing. First, Salinger was a very reserved person and was cautious not to reveal numerous intimate details about his life before his death in the year 2010, leading to speculation on how much of Novel was based upon his personal experience. Besides, the publication of Catcher attracted a lot of positive and negative attention. The book made it to banned-book lists often as a result of sexual situations, inappropriate language, violent content, and unethical behavior of the main character.


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