Disasters are occurrences that culminate in serious disruptions to societal functioning. They entail widespread environmental, economic, human, and material effects that surpass the capacity of the affected society to cope given the available resources (Coppola, 2007). For this reason, disaster management should be carefully planned. Disaster management entails responsibilities and resources management and organization that assists in handling every emergency humanitarian aspect. Therefore, disaster management is an all-inclusive process that involves preparedness as well as recovery and response that aims at lessening disaster effects. All countries are prone to disasters. However, disaster vulnerability is substantially dissimilar. National Health Security Strategy (NHSS) and Federal Emergency Management Authority (FEMA) help in curbing interruptions of essential services by disasters. Moreover, international, state, federal, and local organizations encourage humanitarian reaction to disasters (Vanderwagen, 2012).
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Natural disasters like tsunamis, volcano eruptions, fires, tornadoes, landslides, hurricanes, floods, landslides as well as earthquakes cause many problems. They have health and other consequences that culminate in suffering as well as deaths. On the other hand, environmental disasters arise from industrial and technological accidents caused by production and transportation of dangerous materials. Pandemic emergencies entail contagious diseases, which adversely affect businesses, services, and human health (Chandra, 2011). This leads to huge social and economic costs. Complex disasters involve authority breakdown, war conflicts, and even attacks and looting of strategic installations. Disaster logistics was not well coordinated during Hurricane Katrina that resulted in huge losses in terms of properties and human lives.
Logistic planning should be considered in disaster preparedness. FEMA designs activities offering permanent protection from disasters. While not every disaster, especially natural emergencies, can be prevented, the risk of injury and life losses is preventable through the implementation of evacuation plans as well as design standards and environmental planning through proper logistics (Borgman, & Rachan, 2009). At federal level, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and National Response Plan (NRP) grant programs contribute to state efforts. Logistics is an important component that affects disaster management operations and planning both at the federal, state, and county levels. Proper logistics assists in pre-positioning and delivery of disaster relief supplies as well as equipment. FEMA is the agency, responsible for logistics coordination during response to disasters by NRP (Vanderwagen, 2012).
Disaster logistics involves the ability to demobilize and mobilize, identify, track, dispatch, and record the existing critical resources throughout tragedy management phases. It entails the accountability, resource unit, staging effort and rehabilitation section. Staging efforts ensure arrival of supplies and materials to the disaster areas whereas accountability helps in resource tracking and providing individual safety. Rehabilitation section assists in monitoring deployed personnel. Lastly, resource units oversee disaster management equipment. An assortment of tornadoes hit Dumas area, Arkansas. Today, proper logistics have been established through the development of disaster management system. Disaster logistics harmonize multi-agency response through the provision of water and food as well as organizing rescue missions (Vanderwagen, 2012). Moreover, such logistics assists in emergency healthcare and the provision of organized transport and telecommunication services.
To FEMA’s management, property accountability is central. Thus, property bar coding has been given premium. Inventory management is essential before property dispatch. In fact, it is undisputable that without an elaborate inventory accountability mechanism, return of purchased durable items is impracticality and bereft accountability, excess purchasing is possible (Borgman, & Rachan, 2009). An inventory system enables FEMA and NHSS stockpile and dispose equipment methodically. It also helps in tracking the equipment and all durable items. Moreover, such a system enables FEMA to institute internal controls in order to avert financial losses. Moreover, during disaster management, it becomes necessary to estimate supply capabilities and then satisfy the need with the available resources.
Personnel credentialing is an objective documentation process that incorporates assessment of licenses and degrees, training, competence, and proficiency. In fact, personnel credentialing involves current and aptitude certification designed to synchronize and augment according to the existing nationally recognized standards. This process enables FEMA and NHSS to offer particular responsibilities through a deliberate attempt that enables them to work in specific circumstances that have experienced certain categories of emergencies. For reasons well-known to National Incident Management System (NIMS), the personnel credentialing process helps in administrative activities (Mahanti, 2006). This, in turn, assists in matching qualifications and the responsibilities beforehand. When qualifications are properly validated, professional standards are adhered to during disaster management.
Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
An EOC is the central location that enables federal, county, and state governments to offer interagency adroitness as well administrative decision-making in shore up recuperation and revitalization operations and incident response support (Mims, 2011). Additionally, EOC has a central location coordinating response activities, disaster preparedness, public safety, and response planning (Chandra, 2011). Furthermore, EOC provides emergency response but does not offer control and command on-scene reaction efforts. Notably, it does provide coordination roles through collection, dissemination, and evaluation of disaster information. It analyzes jurisdictional effects, manages requests, utilizes resources, and sets precedence procedures.
ICS 206, Medical Plan
Notably, Medical Plan ICS 206 helps in the provision of information for efficient disaster management. It contains gaps that have to be filled with information relating to emergency procedures, health aid stations, transportation services, and dispensaries available and used in emergency incidents (Chandra, 2011). Moreover, Medical Plan ICS 206 is developed by leaders of medical units who have information about the emergency and how it should be managed. Subsequently, Medical Plan ICS 206 is handled to Safety Officers who assess it in order to ensure that a proper ICS coordination process is put in place. If there is a need for aviation services, Medical Plan ICS 206 is necessary to coordinate rescue missions (Mims, 2011Its duplicate is attached to Incident Action Plan (IAP) form.
Policies as well as structures at the county, local, and federal government levels influence the state’s preparedness to disasters. It is important that NHSS’ efforts are effectively boosted by FEMA in order to execute the adopted disaster management programs. Handling emergencies requires coordination at all government levels. This will mitigate the damage resulting from disasters, be they natural, environmental, complex, or pandemic.