There is a chain in the organism of each human. It begins with the cells which contain the information for a protein that means a gene. It consists of thousands of nucleotides. Many genes, each of them is a part of the DNA molecule, make the chromosome. And it is kept as a protein code. The cells of a human body build the molecules with whose help the information from the gene can be used. These molecules are called RNA molecules. They are also the sequence of genes. The difference between the RNA and DNA molecules is that the first ones are single stranded and the second one is double stranded. In the cell cytoplasm is a ribosome, where the RNA molecules are sent by the cells. The name mRNA of the RNA molecules is associated with the message from the nucleus which it brings to the cytoplasm. The human body does firstly the transcription that means the production from the DNA to the RNA molecules. During this transcription the information is sent to the ribosome with mRNA. And only after the RNA is read, the protein is produced. The sequence of the mRNA, in which the cell reads it, is with enzymes, the ribosome. At the end an adapter for the mRNA, the amino acids and the ribosome is formed by tRNA in order to produce the protein.
Phil is eager to get as much as possible information about what is a string-of-stuff. And after the trial to refresh his memory about biology class and he remembers the answer to his question. This is a chromosome with myosin, lactase, or actin in it. The chromosome is used for the keeping of the genetic information. It uses the genetic code which the specific DNA sequences keep the information for every amino acid. This code determines the mRNA molecule sequences and the RNA sequences during the synthesis of protein.
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They concentrate their attention on Amanda as soon as she interrupts them. Their conversation is about the eye colors. They compare what color they eyes are, and they realize that they all have different color. Josh is the only one among them who has the dark eye. The differences of the eye color usually depend on the mutation which means the change inside the DNA sequences.
However the mutagenic changes may happen by chance, around us there are a many examples of that. For instance Amanda, she likes cooking for her friends. That is why she is inquired about the oxygen radicals, which are connected with the cooking of meat and fried potatoes, because during the cooking or frying the mutagenic chemicals happen. The highly reactive feature of oxygen has a damaging influence on the chemicals which causes their transformation to the superoxide or hydroxyl. These oxygen radicals are in the most of the organism with oxygen content. The translation, protein folding and transcription are related. The first process is transcription when the cell creates mRNA which is completed to the single strand of DNA. While the transcription happens the mutation influences the enzyme, polymerase, which use for the creation of the mRNA. The enzymes figure the end of the gene. The mRNA during the translation process goes into the cytoplasm. This process also changes the sequence of the mRNA in protein. For that the ribosome, enzymes are needed. The mutation can change, delete or insert the mRNA sequence; as a result there are different sequences. So from the translation comes the active protein. And the last one is the protein folding which from protein makes enzyme. Due to the building of the different mRNA and protein sequences, the protein folding is affected by the changes in the DNA.
The bell peppers were not known in Europe until 1492 when Columbus, who had an interest in chiles from Americans, made his voyage. He brought to Europe seeds which he took from the hot chiles of the Caribbean. Over the centuries the European took the bell peppers to America. They were the same species, but now they differed in shape, flavor, size, and heat-intensity. The breeding programs are needed to get the bell peppers. As a general thing the mutation gives anyhow the diversity of genes. Nevertheless the chiles were selected by the Europeans for the growing up of the bell peppers for the next generation. In the population the long-term genetic character is built by increase of product selection and mutation which would be used for the creation of bell peppers from chiles in the quality of long-term genetic character.
The color of eyes and hair of different people usually has various spectra. It depends on the same gene and its variations. With the help of enzymes the chemical compound changes into the different ones which bring out the various pigments. The most common eye color is brown. Sometimes the enzymes, when the direction of the variant gene protein fold is not right, cannot get this pigment of brown color. The eye color different has also the influence of the DNA sequences, especially of their changes and the creation of new genes. They affect different variation with the help of this mutation. The activity of enzyme is connected with the hair color, because it needs to be highly active for the creation of more and more pigments. In another case there would be less pigment.
The intolerance and tolerance allele and their difference woke the interest of Phil and Kyle, however they had a pill. The intolerance allele, because of the lactose enzyme lack in the small intestine, is not able for the lactose digestion. The tolerance is a contrast to it. The various DNA sequences are different from short sequences which are regulatory. It means that they settle the polymerase activity. The sequences of DNA differ for genes. In the natural population there are the genetic differences. The Europeans and the citizens of the US have as a rule the lactase gene mutation. The reason is throughout life remaining. After the weaning the transcription of the lactase tolerance allele is stopped. It means that the sequence of the DNA to lactase gene is inherited by a human with tolerant lactose. The population as a long term gene is a result of the mutation of the gene. The most people have the intolerant lactose. Before weaning Amanda would be lactose tolerant, but after it – lactose intolerant, because this change depends on weaning. Even if Amanda’s parents were both tolerant, due to mutation she can be intolerant. But still she may have the tolerant allele from the parents, so it can make the next generation lactase tolerant.
Their conversation about the inheritance turned into a conversation about the next dinner. As their cuisines are different, they would like to try everything. Each cuisine has its own set of dishes and food. There are also different methods of the preparation. By us is a way that the similar species of food plants arise in the cluster pass. The people by transporting with them brought the animals and plants. Also potatoes, yams and sweet potatoes which are related food plants arise in the world regions. The citrus show how they were transported. They came from the Mediterranean and western Asia and were transported to each place where they were probably able to grow. However they came from the little place in related species. The plants which were transported will always be different from the native ones, if the regions are far away from each other, for example, different continents. The plant and cuisines, which are distant, are also different. The difference of the environment brings a different result on plants.
The mutation, which is the damage of the DNA by the mistaken repair, helps species to survive. The mutation brings anyhow the diversity of genes, so these variations serve for the survival in the surroundings. This is a basic principle that, when the population of species detaches into distinct ones, the species can divide from one into two. The desultory changes of genes create different species out of the original population, and the divided groups turn to be separate to be a mutation species.
While Josh and Amanda talk, Francine realizes that Amanda has a wrong opinion about antibiotics, which using of the antibiotics helps us to become steadfast, and decides to rescue her. If we take many antibiotics, they become piled instead of making us resistant, because they are very harmful for human body. For example, the usage of the E. coli will not be a treatment, because the body is already resistant to the antibiotics. E. coli, as a rule, chooses genes out of the cholera, bacterium. So it contaminates digestive track of the human body and brings in such way the bacterial pathogens which are the bad ones.
If the human immune system mistakes a protein and overreacts to it, it causes the allergies. There are food and skin types of allergy. The allergy to the pollen of the plants calls hay fever; there are forty million allergy affected people. The allergy symptoms are sneezing, facial pressure, runny nose, and watery eyes. As there are types of allergy, there are also different remedies; the first one of them is shrub of the northern Asian, European and North American plant: a natural remedy of butterbur. The other one is omeg-3 fatty acids which are absorbed during the diet and which reduces the inflammatory chemicals production inside the body. In such way it reduces the allergy effect. The omega-3 fatty acids can be found in the walnuts, flaxseed oil, and fish oil capsule which must be received for remedy.
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