The evidence for and against the five factor structure of personality depends on the establishment of the factorial invariance of forms and samples that have significant implications on the taxonomy of the personality traits. The methods can be used to test the measurement properties in case the factorial invariance can allow for factor comparisons in the groups. The results are then presented for the invariant second order structure. This is done in two forms that in include Clinical Analysis Questionnaire and Form C of the 16PF and also across the six independent samples. Four of the samples should consist of female and male police applicants (combined N=15, 332) and the other two samples should contain two samples of male felons (combined N=15, 460).
The autonomously rotated familiar factor analyses shows that six factors namely anxiety, sensitive awareness, extraversion, intelligence, control, and independence are well replicated in the samples. The salient loading only, which is a restricted factor solution with identical loading that is metric factorial invariance, holds across the samples. More constraints on the factor model called strict factorial invariance which is mean intercepts, invariant factor loading, and unique variance provides for a better fit in the felon and police samples. Most findings indicate evidence that supports the five factor personality structure of the 16F across different people of varied forms.
In addition, the human personality structure can be represented in the trait lexicon. The attributes of a human being are contained in the personality structure. This is what led to the development of the lexically based progression of the five factor model (FFM) of the personality structure. This includes the dimension traits like agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness to experience and intelligence. However, the work critics say is flawed and provides less account for human personality structure. This is because the current personality research involves an interactions model where the traits and the situation derived states interact, and this influences the behavioral outcomes of the people.