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Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a single-celled organism, non-spore forming rod that lives in gastrointestinal track of people and warm-blooded animals. However, this organism can be observed in soil and water where fecal contamination reaches the high level. Classically, the presence of this organism affirms poor quality of water and food. In 1885 Theodor Escherich discovered this organism by isolating it from the feces of the child. This organism is determined as anaerobic bacterium that belongs to bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae.
The strains of E. coli are defined as harmless and are essential in the microflora, since they prevent the growth of harmful bacteria and facilitate the synthesis of vitamins. Nevertheless, there are 4 harmful strains that lead to urinary tract infections, diarrheal disease, and wound pathogen. These 4 strains are: enteropathogenic E. coli (causes diarrhea in children that may end fatally, in death), enteroinvasive E. coli (leads to fever, profuse diarrhea, weakening, and rheumatic pain), enterotoxigenic E. coli (causes “traveler’s diarrhea that can end in dehydration of the human organism) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (causes hemolytic uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis). Moreover, E. coli differential diagnosis includes: Enterobacter, Enteroccocus, Klebsiella, Providencia, Shigella species, Proteus mirabilis, and Serriata marcescens (Lovett, 1989).
The clinical significance of E. coli consists in deep analysis of the pathogenesis of foodborne disease that is caused by this bacterium and its prevention. Moreover, the main aim for the scientist will be elimination of the presence of E. coli, while it causes serious disease and lead to death. It is clearly understandable that modern science need to apply effective tools from a variety of disciplines for the pasteurization, thermal treatment, and purification of food that humans consume.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a widespread bacterium that causes staph infections. This bacterium is present in 25% of healthy humans and mostly causes lesions of noses, throat, hair, and skin. In 1884 an American scholar Rosenbach made a nomenclature of Staphylococcus in which he distinguished S. aureus as a pigmented colony type. Taxonomically, S. aureus belongs to the Bacterial family Staphylococcaceae.
This bacterium is known for its “inclination to colonization”. This can be amplified by the fact that Staphylococcus aureus is present but does not cause any infection. Moreover, this bacterium can be observed in mammals’ organisms and leads to the rise of bovine mastitis. The sources of Staphylococcus aureus include food that is made by hand contact, such as salads, bakery products, poultry, and milk. Furthermore, S. aureus can be transferred by touching contaminated places and by skin-on-skin contact. Additionally, open wounds can be easily infected by this bacterium. The incubation period of the circulation of Staphylococcus aureus in the human body can last 1-7 hours. The duration of disease caused by this bacterium can endure up to 48 hours. The symptoms of the lesion of S. aureus: vomiting, diarrhea, mild fever, loss of appetite, and weakness (Belkum, 2009).
The differential diagnosis of S. aureus can be demonstrated by the following diseases: Bactermia, Impetigo, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Kawasaki Disease, Parvovirus B19 Infection, Serum Sickness, Rheumatic Fever, Meningitis, Septic phlebitis and Toxic Shock Syndrome.
The clinical significance of S. aureus is to conduct scientific research of the reasons of occurrence of this bacterium and make clinical presentation of the effective medical devices, such as indwelling catheters, obstruction, and application of surgery that will assist in prevention of rise of S. aureus infection in the human body.