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Pharmaceutical companies remain one of the most crucial topics being discussed as businesses in the context of globalization. Most of the pharmaceutical companies are focusing on their businesses incomes instead of providing a cure for most fatal diseases that exist in life. Together with the science field, some relevant theories from philosophers may suggest some answers; however, neither utilitarianism nor deontological seems to be close to achieving substantial improvements. There are several options on how to address such problems, but one issue that will always remain is how the ethics is understood on an individual basis.
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There are two main arguments which have been mentioned concerning the issue of experimental trials conducted by large American pharmaceutical companies. First, the author argues that these large drug companies are involved in off shoring their operations outside the developed countries such as, USA and Western Europe. Merck, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the United States, has been found to have conducted at least 50% of its drug trials in other countries, while Wyeth is expected to conduct more than half its drugs trials in countries like Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.
This is happening because patients in such poor countries are more than willing to participate in drug tests. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that these patients are desperately seeking for treatments in trial clinics. Later, the author mentions that, despite the inexperienced participation of these patients in the drug trials, they are the least beneficiaries since they are not ethically informed. The truth is that these patients cannot get this medicine because of the fact that they can neither afford the drugs nor make the drugs meet their needs. Statistically, 90% of the global medical research budget is directed to illnesses that cause only 10% of human death. Thus, relating to Shah, these poor people participate in clinical trials, which will never be beneficial to them.
The author also uses different argument to encourage the participation of these people in taking medicines for such serious illnesses. He advocates on behalf of these participants of such drugs-trials, to disregard the fact of possible deaths. Later she suggests that these drug trials are not necessarily negative, since they work for the best outcomes. Furthermore, she agrees with participation in drug experiments regardless of the possible substantial risks involved. She also argues that human research institutions are committed to overseeing the safety of these trials, but at the same time, risks are inevitable in some extent.
The development of drug tests is considered a fundamental practice in achieving the required knowledge in the medical field; however, there are ethical issues in between this exercise. First, using people without their clear consent or intentionally providing false information regarding the clinical tests in order to lure unsuspecting participants is considered unethical and inhumane. On the other hand, these drug trials are necessary since diseases keep on mutating; therefore, they are significant in providing medical solutions.
From the utilitarianism point of view, ethical decisions need to be taken in favor of the greater good. This means that if it is of the greater good to perform a drug test, then it should everyone's aim. This means that drug testing is in favor of the greater good of preventing diseases and saving lives. However, using ninety percent of pharmaceutical funds to develop treatments for less than ten percent of the world’s disease is morally wrong and not sustainable according to the utilitarianism theory.
Deontology or, Kant’s moral theory gives a justification for the rights of the individuals against the impositions of the majority. This theory suggests that every individual may exert his or her duty of morality, and act with good intention. It also claims that people should be left to choose their manner of course whether it is perceived to be wrong or not. Applying this theory to the case, the study reveals that people should not be forced to undergo drug trials against their wish. From my point of view, despite the fact that the idea tends to achieve the individual’s autonomy, it might result in minimal efforts made by researchers of pharmaceutical institutions, to find relevant and effective drugs for the cure of developed illnesses.
I believe it is possible to solve this problem in an ethical manner. To begin with, pharmaceutical companies need to have the principle to save people’s lives, and provide them with the most safe and effective treatments. In addition, the following principle is fair enough for conducting ethical forms of drugs trials; “each and every drug outfit company in the country should act towards performing drugs trials on human only after revealing significant and complete information, which pertain to risks involved as well as possible side-effects of participation in such as experimental”.
I have made a decision to serve on the National Board of Drug Testing Ethics since there is a need to remain informed as diseases continually undergo mutation. Furthermore, I believe these tests undergo intense examination prior to being allowed to be applied in a proper manner on humans. Besides, the approval granted to these research trials means that the amount of risks involved will be minimized as a whole. As a result, it will be somehow safer to conduct researches in order to define the relevance of the medications.
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