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Most of people with diabetes in the US are also obese, as the recent survey conducted by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has shown. Obesity remains the chief adjustable factor in the prevention of diabetes. Recent study done between 2003 and 2004 by NHANES shows that the percentage of obese adults aged between 20 to 39 years is 28.5. 36.8% of adults between 40 to 50 and 31.0% of those aged 60 and above were also found to be obese, according to the survey. Diabetes is defined as body mass index of 30 and above. Meanwhile, in 20 years between 1976-2006, diabetes among adults with diabetes type 2 raised to 34.2kg/m from 29.2kg/m. Excess weight is closely linked to the high prevalence of diabetes. Obesity and diabetes are said to increase the mortality rate. One of the aims of this study was to show the relationship between diabetes and obesity in a big group of US persons partaking 1999-2006 NHANES. The study population comprised of 5,000 US citizens each year.
Analysis for merged data from 1999 to 2006 was done. The sources of information for this survey were measurements of systolic blood pressure, demographic information, history of medical disease, smoking history, as well as laboratory measurements. Data collection methods included an interview on health information, physical extermination, and laboratory testing. Measurements of weight and height were conducted by use of standard protocols. In order to calculate BMI, weight was divided by height in square meters. An individual with BMI of less than 18.5 was categorized as being underweight. Overweight individuals were those whose BMI exceeded 25.5 but was not more than 29.9. For obese, the criteria for class one were BMI of between 30-34.5, while class two and class three were BMI of between 35 and 39.9 and above 40 respectively. Analysis was done using SAS 9.1. Both clustering and stratification variables were used in the analysis. Statistical significance was set at P value less than 5.
Among the 21,205 adults surveyed, 13.6 % (2,894) were found to have diabetes. The mean age of those surveyed was 59 years. A total of 80% of diabetics surveyed were considered as overweight, while 49. 1% of diabetics were considered obese. According to the results, diabetes prevalence increases with the increase in classes of weight. It rises from 8% for normal weight individuals to 43% for persons with obesity class 3. Both fasting glucose and HbA1c means were uppermost for diabetic individuals whose BMI exceeded 25. Mean insulin, as well as levels of c-peptide, were also at maximum for those diabetics with BMI equal to 35, suggesting insulin resistance state.
The survey findings suggested the relationship between obesity and diabetes. Diabetes is more prevalent among individuals who are obese. According to the 8 year survey (1999-2006), almost half of all diabetic adults are said to be obese. Prevention of diabetes can thus help to avert high prevalence of diabetes among adults. There is thus a relationship between diabetes and obesity.