Cultural relativism is a main concept in Anthropology, states that since every culture has its own customs and values, Anthropologists are not supposed to make values judgement on cultural disparities. Therefore, Anthropological pedagogy has emphasized that the research of values and norms have become value-free, and the suitable function of Anthropologists is to observe and record. Today, nevertheless, these views have been dared by critics within and exterior the discipline, particularly those who wish Anthropologists to have a stand on main human rights concerns. I concur that it is the time Anthropologists to become actively in safeguarding the human rights whose cultures and lives they research. Tracing cultural relativism is very interesting to notice that Anthropologist Mead Margaret, who was connected with the ascendancy concepts in Anthropology, was one of the lecturers encouraged by the Russell Sage Foundation at the Cornell University School of Nursing to start the idea of psychosomatic to the courses during 1950s ( Doughtery & Tripp-Reimer 219). At the heart of theory of Trans-cultural, there is an inherent cultural relativism in nursing that explicitly defining and applying of the concept of cultural imposition and Ethnocentricism. These thoughts are recognized as blockades to ethnically congruent health care. Leininger (152) encourages nurses to identify their own cultural unfairness, help them in abeyance in diverse-cultural faces, search for their customer’s cultural standpoints, and offer culturally congruent care.
Other cultural evaluation frameworks had been developed by Giger and Davidhizar (101) that authors like Leininger also imply an ethnically relative standpoint.
According to AmericanAcademy of Nursing Expert Panel Report (277) these frameworks give groupings for nurses to set up customers’ cultural beliefs, values, and customs. Their aim is to help nurses in evading ethnocentric evaluations before giving responsive care according to their customers’ cultural standpoint. Additionally, nursing intellectuals have stressed the ideas of cultural competence and sensitivity. A professional panel of the American Academy of Nursing (277) defined cultural sensitivity as the consciousness, and use of understanding linked to ethnicity, culture, gender and sexual orientation in explaining and comprehending the circumstances and the reactions of customers and their surroundings, while the culturally competence of nurses care is stemmed on this understanding. Therefore, Camphinha-Bacote’s (19) model explained the Cultural Competence as the representing the following qualities such as consciousness of person’s own chauvinism and biasness toward other cultures, wide-ranging understanding on culture, capacity to carry out exact cultural evaluations, and interpersonal abilities in diverse-cultural coming.
Nurses, therefore, came up with conceptual frameworks to help the profession to offer care which conforms to customer’s cultural perceptions and what customers believe it is better health-care. The principles of respect and forbearance of others highlight this work as nurses did the previously Anthropology doctrine on cultural relativism. While these models offer worldwide classes to shed light on specific cultural disparities, universalism and relativism are not being against each other. However, the stress is on past, Leininger (153) noted, such as, The Informants emic understanding and knowledge are more important for grounded data than the ethic of researchers’ a priori perspectives. These emic health-care constructs are priceless to describe, develop and direct nursing activities (Leininger 158) amusingly, in light of the discussion on postmodern relativism, Tripp-Reimer & Fox (120) called upon the relativism of a collective humanity which goes beyond multiplicity to criticize an overstress on cultural disparities in conceptualization of nursing in cross-cultural care. They contended that for a long time there has been an aim on groups of diversities, which failed to deal with what is fundamentally human, autonomous of form.
In conclusion, debates on cultural relativism show a dilemma which especially pertinent to nurses as an extensive global migration increases cultural multiplicity in societies all over the world, therefore, issues involved in nursing while needs a closer look.
Related Free Philosophy Essays
- Goals of Virgil, Saint Paul, and Saint Augustine of Hippo
- Would Morality Exist If God Did Not
- Human Existentialism
- Descartes’s Mind-Body Problem
- Declaration of Independence as Seen Through the Lenses of Karl Marx, John Locke and Jean Rousseau
- Philosophy and ethics
- Plato: Crito
- Equal Rights for Women
- The Nature of Human
- A Dialogue with Socrates