As a result of development of cost-cutting measure and urbanization, energy consumptions impacts on health and environment have become a focal point in China. In a brief review of energy consumptions betwixt 1980 to 2000, and analyzing its impacts on environment; it shows that the emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2 and soot dust which is been caused by energy consumption could increase a higher level in the imminent, and there is three essential difference in the scenarios’ guesstimate. Strengthening the exploitation, improving energy efficiency and deployment of clean and renewable energy are recommended to mitigate the surroundings pollution. (Malaya, 2008)
China energy consumption has extremely increased; this increase is been linked with mass production and mass consumption for the purpose of improving the living standards of human being, which is inevitable. However, we ought to exert power to modify the energy structure by improving the exhausting processing and therefore we are able to conserve the environment. Scrutinizing the characteristics of energy consumption in China, the air pollution problems is mainly caused the petroleum and burning of coal. According to the research conducted by environmental analysts, they have found that the density of SOx and TSP in the atmosphere is reducing year by year, for the reason that Shanghai government is attempting to regulate the industrial structure and oomph consumption. Moreover, the density of NOX is ever-increasing steadily due to an increase in automobile ownership. Whenever the environment is polluted, the health of human being is at high risk.
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The present society has established a well-off material civilization via mass production that is made possible by consuming a lot energy and resources. But, due to massive consumption of energy, a lot of environmental problem have emerged, which manipulates a solemn impact on the existence of mankind and annihilates the regeneration circulation purpose of nature and goes beyond the purification aptitude of nature. Among the developing countries in the global, China has receive the most attention due to rapid growth of its urbanization and economy. The economist centre for China is Shanghai and its GPD is the highest amongst the China cities.
Construction and economic development
Shanghai is the largest city in China with a vicinity of 6340.5 square kilometers and population of 13,110, 000 (1999). From historic, the city was the most developed cities of the Far East and currently is the quickest developing city in China and even in the global. Throughout the past 20 years of the 20th century, the Shanghai population increased up to 2.1 percent whereas the Gross Domestic Product (GPD) was quadrupled, up to 1998, it reached over USD 3200 (RMB 2.8 ten thousands, RMD is china currency unit, IUSD=8.5RMB). In the graph below, it shows an increase in population over the past ten years.
Energy and Economic Growth
The consumption of energy has been increasing along with the economic growth. Even though, the increase rate of energy consumption is less than the rate of economic growth. The consumption of energy flexibility value is 0.25-0.5 (that’s, energy consumption flexibility value=energy consumption rate of raise/GDP growth rate)
Shanghai energy source in 1997
In 1980-1997, the GDP increased regarding eleven times from USD 3.7 billion (RMB 315 hundred million to USD 39.5 billion (RMB 3360 hundred million). The total consumption of energy doubled during this episode. Moreover, the energy consumption of 10, 000RMB GDP is to be reduced with year. Therefore, the efficient use of energy to generate 10, 0000 RMB GDP has raised in China.
Petroleum and coal are the major raw energy sources in China and the ratio of raw energy consumption is well shown in the above last graph. Coal and petroleum reported for seventy percent and twenty percent of energy consumption in 1997. However, the consumption of raw energy is prolonging increasing along with the development of economy; coal consumption in Shanghai was 42, 160,000 tons in 1997, this was an increase of 171% compared in 1980, and even 54% increased in contrast with 1990 (William, 2005). On other hand, the consumption of petroleum in 1997 was 10,180,000 tons, an increase of 68% compared to 1980 and 20% in contrast with 1990. Due to the adjustment of the industrial structure, the proportion of private dwellings and business regarding energy consumption will kept on increasing.
Energy Consumption and Environment
Pollution of air in China is a very serious case that’s caused by burning coal. Pollution discharge is increasing along with the raise of energy consumption. The calculated value of SOX before 1992 was close to the statistical value when contrasted. The dissimilarities become huge from 1992. Below is the statistics of pollution caused by generating 1kWh power of different fuel.
Apart from air pollution, there’s water pollution. Some factories have poor disposing system; some dispose their disposal in water waterway such as river, these causes harmful to marine life, human being and animals that use the same water. When wasteful oil is disposed into water, it blocks air from penetrating inside the water, this leads to death of any animal persisting in water. (William, 2005)
However, as noted from McCain (1997), the value of statistic was lower than the value of calculation, because there have been a lot of significant measures that have been adopted in order to improve air pollution crisis by energy consumption. The major measures are as follows:
I. Improvement in the quality of energy source.
II.The shanghai Government set up a number of strict bylaw regarding conservation in 1992.
III.Amendment of industrial structure. A number of industries that consumed a huge amount of energy normally release a lot pollution, whereby they have been moved or closed.
IV.Amendment in energy consumption structure. The pollution of air has been greatly enhanced in up to date years after the guidelines of the Government. This policy includes prohibition of coal boiler which is used inside the inner loop; this assist the type of air pollution to be turned from soot compound type.
Air pollution is the major underlying factors for overindulgence cardiorespiratory diseases and death. It’s expected that population exposed to air pollutants was approximated under the dissimilar energy use scenarios by 2010, 2020 and 2030, correspondingly, in the urban area of Beijing, China. We usually use daily dimensions of particulate matter fewer than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and sulphate dioxide (SO2) while air pollution indicators (Science Direct, 2007). A lot of deaths have occurred as a result of pollution. It’s therefore necessary for government to take severe measures against these industries in order to prevent more deaths. (Sinton, 2009)
According to the two years study, sustained by the international environment group (WWF) and the U.S based Energy Foundation, it shows that by 2050, the emissions of greenhouse gases which is been blamed for global warming might reach seventeen billion tons. This could represent sixty percent of total global emissions and more than three times China’s present production. They also said that if the scale of China’s fossil fuel consumption will continue be shocking, China will be more challenged by the global warming than any other country. In addition, its developed east coast cities will contend increasing sea levels, and drought-prone agricultural regions suffering from water shortages. Using energy consumption enlargement trends since 2002 to 2008, the study shows that China’s energy consumption might exceed one hundred billion tons of standard coal by 2050, above the Earth’s capacity to uphold and in excess of the 16.1 billion tons of standard coal, the whole planet consumed in 2008. It’s therefore necessary for the government to make use of large scale use of renewable energy, nuclear power and massive investment in low-carbon technology, in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
As a result, carbon dioxide emissions cause’s health dangers in human being, some of the impacts are: Asphyxiation, this might decrease the concentration of oxygen to a level which is instantaneously dangerous for human being health. The second impact is frostbite; solid carbon dioxide (such as coal) is normally below -780C at standard atmospheric pressure, despite of the air temperature. If you’re to handle this substance for more than one second without appropriate protection, it might cause a serious blister, and other unwanted effects. Lastly but not the list is Kidney damage or coma; this is a result of disturbances in chemical equilibrium of carbonate buffer. After concentration of carbon dioxide, it increases or decreases causing the equilibrium to be disturbed, this’s a life threatening situation that might occur.
Energy consumption in China has a lot of impacts on environment and health. The excess emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2 and soot dust which is been caused by energy consumption has extremely increased causing air pollution and health impacts. The major source of energy in China is fuel and coal; the burning coal causes a lot of air pollution, the same as petroleum. In addition, the density of NOX is ever-increasing steadily due to an increase in automobile ownership. As a result, human being health is at high risk of cardiorespiratory diseases and death. It’s therefore necessary for the government to severe measure to overcome this problem, or else it will get itself into hot water.
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