Throughout all their lives people try to find out where they came from, how they appeared and who created the world they are living in. People believe either in God or the theory of evolution. Some of them are even confident that we were brought on this planet by aliens and others are not sure about what to believe in. Besides all this presumptions, there is a theory of an intelligent design widely spread nowadays.
In terms of the given topic, design can be recognized as a plan intentionally created by someone. It is a process that involves deliberately planned intention that is not yet implemented.
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Intelligent design is a program of scientific research investigations which are made by a community of scientists, philosophers and other scholars seeking convincing evidence of design in nature. They believe that the world was designed by an intelligent cause. The proponents of intelligent design theory are not trying to utter their idea in religious way, finding out whether the designer is natural or supernatural. Intelligent design is compared to creation science, but it is not the same thing. Both of these orientations share the idea about evolutionary scientific discipline’s impropriety.
According to the theory of intelligent design, nature shows us substantial evidence proving that it has been designed by intelligence that existed before, but unlike creationism, intelligent design theory does not declare God to be the intelligent designer. They believe in the existence of a clear evidence of intelligent design in nature. God could be the designer, but adherents of the intelligent design presume that it could be also a supernatural force or an extraterrestrial race. The adherents of this theory presuppose that natural processes only are deficient and that intelligent design requires a highly developed intellect. Nevertheless, they might be necessary for designing. The theory implies that design can be revealed in the same way as objects made by human. Certain biological species’ structure looks like it has been designed. Therefore, this fact is interpreted as evidence of designer’s existence, albeit, the theory of design is obscure about what happened and when. The theory implies that design can be revealed in the same way as objects made by human. However, methods of intelligent design theory are not acknowledged by the scientific community, since they are not always scientifically substantiated by facts.
An investigation conducted in a documentary film Flock of Dodos presents disagreements between the evolution-based concept and intelligent design postulates. It embraces a historical overview of the intelligent design proponents and theories up to the present time.
Michel J. Behe introduced his theory of irreducible complexity. He defines it as a uniformed system composed of several parts supplementing each other so it assists the functioning of the main system. Removal of a single part causes the whole system to stop functioning (Behe). Behe uses a mousetrap to illustrate his conception. Removal of any part of the mousetrap results in dysfunction of the whole mechanism. He sets flagella of bacteria as an example. They are like motors with a long propeller that helps them to move forward. A joint fastens the propeller to the motor. Proteins functioning as a stator retain the motor. All the other proteins are used as bushing material. They help the rotating shaft to permeate through the membrane of the bacteria. A huge amount of different proteins secure flagellum’s functioning. The flagellum is incapable of functioning in case any of the proteins is missing. However, Kenneth R. Miller states that there is a set of proteins still capable of working in the absence of the other part of the mechanism (Miller). This group of proteins is utilized to inject poisons into other cells by different bacteria. Nevertheless, this capability is not the direct purpose of the mechanism; it is favored by natural selection.
William A. Dembski developed a concept of specified complexity. He presumes that the existence of an intelligent designer can be proved if an object has a specified level of complicacy showing object’s incapability to come into existence in the course of natural processes. He points that Darwin’s theory of evolution cannot produce the specified complexity subsisting in biological organisms and that intelligent design can be anything that is not a necessity or a chance (Dembski). According to Dembski, the DNA molecule is a first-rate example of intelligent design. His opponent Robert T. Pennock considers this opinion to be false since one cannot expose an intelligent designer due to his suggestion. He states that science needs credible evidence which cannot be supplied in terms of Demski’s theory (Pennock).
The proponents of the intelligent design theory claim that every part of any system has its own purpose and if it cannot be used for some reason, it is still needed; even if people do not know what for yet. The opponents reject this idea because of lack of evidence that the qualities of the living things were intentionally designed. Thus, something that was designed for non-reasonable functioning or non-functioning (peacock's tail or human male's nipples, for example) can be called unintelligent design.
In such a way examples of unintelligent design address issues raised by intelligent design. What intelligent design theory’s followers consider to be created for some intelligent purposes is treated as useless by their opponents. Anything created by a human being can be an example of unintelligent design too. The purpose of such creation is known, and there is a designer.
Reliability of the intelligent design is a problematic question to discuss since the theory has some imperfections. First of all, it can never be tested. Any testing is impossible until the designer remains unidentified. Though, there is a huge amount of phenomena that cannot be explained by means of modern science. Such areas of science as forensics, archeology and some others have a lot of questions to be answered (for example, is death a natural phenomenon or it has an intelligent reason?). Scientists need either more evidence of the designer’s presence or evidence of the existence of design. Intelligent design will remain an unrecognized concept until there are accurate proofs of the points listed above. A lot of opponents apprehend intelligent design as something connected with politics and religion, but not with science. Nevertheless, the opportunity of its credibility should be taken into consideration, since this theory, denoting irrefutable facts, can become an alternative to Darwin’s theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
Teaching intelligent design in schools should not be regarded as unnecessary. The Darwin’s theory of evolution does not cover all the questions related to the appearance of the living organisms. Students should be aware of all possible theories that have the right to exist. Intelligent design studying can open one’s mind in an entirely new direction. Moreover, teaching this theory in schools may assist science in future. Future intellects can be inspired by this subject and maybe one day they will be able to answer the question how everything was created.
New theories that appeared due to scientific researches should be carefully studied and tested. The theory of intelligent design should be supported with undisputable evidence in order to be fully trusted. Until this happens the science cannot recognize it as a full-fledged concept.
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