Taking into consideration the tendencies of the modern economy, it is of the utmost importance for the employer to find the most precise and sophisticated way to design a job. In order to lower the cost of training and increase the productivity of the employee, HR-managers utilize job specialization techniques which have become very popular lately. These techniques suggest breaking the working process into accessible elements and further assigning these elements to different employees so that the company can make a positive impact on the total efficiency of business. Nevertheless, even taking into account the best aspects of specialization, as well as the majority of economic processes, it has its downsides and negative effects on the company and employees. Therefore, the executives should be very careful introducing the job specialization techniques to the company. They should consider all advantages and disadvantages and apply them only in case the result would bring about more constructivism than negativism to the work processes.
The specialization of work is also called job simplification. The latter version of this term is, of course, more understandable to the mind of an average person. Along with job specialization, big and small companies are also using other methods of job design, such as job enrichment, job rotation, and job enlargement. Although work specialization is still considered to be among the most efficient ways to improve company’s economy, probably the wisest decision that the top management of the company can carry out is to mix these methods and implement them equally.
Let’s now have a look at benefits and drawbacks of the specialization technique. On the one hand, this technique is very beneficial for the company because it allows to equally delegate the responsibilities among the employees, which makes it possible to get the best results at every single stage of the business process, from working on the archetype of the product to customer service. The specialization technique is very popular among fast food companies, where every worker has a separate mission to accomplish. When each employee works on a separate process and is able to complete it in a timely manner, all these processes are untied into one major working process which works like a Swiss watch and serves the operational and strategic goals of the company.
But what about the negative points of job specialization? In fact, it has a few. One of the greatest perils lies in the wrong implementation of this technique which can lead to dysfunction of many vital operational processes. However, probably the biggest disadvantage of job specialization is job dissatisfaction. By performing the same function over and over again every day, the employee can get bored and feel that their work is unchallenging and doesn’t worth their time. Further demotivation will eventually lead to a significant decrease in productivity. This is when job rotation has to be applied. It should give the worker the freshness which they have been looking for. Usually, when job rotation is applied, satisfaction and productivity increase considerably.