According to Forsyth (2006, p. 4), flexibility in planning is an indication that, “a firm is able to change direction quickly and to reconfigure strategically as an essential factor to its success in achieving sustainable competitive advantage”. Flexibility is important in a dynamic business environment as it assists in executing focused plans and ensures that integrated planning and scheduling tools are effectively employed in developing a flexible production and supply process within an organization. Moreover, flexibility helps managers and implementers of organizational plans to adapt to new challenges as a way of implementing strategic plans.
With heightening competition and dynamic business environment, managers in organizations must come up with better management strategies to ensure that employees maximize their time when they are on the job. One way of ensuring this is through flexible work arrangements. This encompasses the use of the flextime and job splitting or work redesigning to include everyone. It also implies job sharing, part time work options and telecommuting. Flexible work arrangements also involve informal or daily flexibility and compressed workweek plans for each employee in the organization.
Human resource management (HRM) is one of the most dynamic branches of management in an organization. This is more so especially given that HRM deal with the management of people. Several factors including globalization and social integration continue to be debated in the management of human resources in organizations. Moreover, with the entry of more young people in the workplace, HR managers are more often than not finding themselves confronted with multi-generational challenges evident in the work place. Labor legislations and policies from labor organizations and governments also affect the management of human resources especially in international organizations. Lastly, the issue of technology use and the dynamism involved in the use of technology in the management of human resources continue to elicit much interest from stakeholder in the HR management.
A group is a team of like-minded people (professionals or amateurs), who are working towards accomplishing an identified task. According to Forsyth (2006, p. 2), a group can be said to be two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships. Groups normally have a leader who is chosen among the members of the team. Groups are formed through five stages. These stages are: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The last stage involves the termination of the tasks that were performed and evaluation of the performance of the group in relation to the objectives and missions that were set out in the forming stage. One of the outstanding characteristics of groups is that members are expected to use their individual skills in executing different roles as agreed with other group members.
Management in organizations is always faced with the opportunities of making choices in their decisions. For instance, during an interview managers may find themselves presented with numerous options to choose among many interviews for one position. Perception is a tool that could help them to make decisions even though the decisions might reveal the truth or distorted information. According to Robbins (2005, p. 15), "perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment”. Robbins further note that several factors can influence the kind of perception that a manager is likely to have towards a particular person or a given situation. These factors include the attitude of the person and the motive, experience, expectation, or the interest that the person has in the issue. Typical perceptions are normally created by a habit and may also be influenced by social settings, timing, and the work settings.
Communication is the passing of messages in different form from the receiver to the recipient through different media with the recipient’s acknowledgment of the receipt of the message through the feedback. Communication can be done through face to face, electronic, or through written documents such as letters, memos among others. Communication plays a crucial role as it helps in ensuring that there is coordination and aligned objectives and strategies among people working in the same organization. It is also important in decision making and marketing of the products and services that an organization is offering.
Conventionally, management motivated their employees through increasing wages and financial benefits that employees were to get. However, the recent trend indicates that people are motivated with other factors than the financial benefit. For instance, employees are likely to be more motivated when there is an efficient and effective leadership style among their managers. This is a result of a direct leadership style and the improvement of working conditions in the organization. Moreover, employees have been known to be motivated with technological tools such as the use of computer systems to aid with their work. Unity and cohesion between management and the employees has also proved to increase the level of motivation among employees even though this might be short-lived.
Leadership is a highly researched area of management in organization. Several leadership theories have been proposed by leadership scholars. Among the major contingency theories of leadership is the Fiedler’s contingency theory which asserts “that group performance is contingent on the leader’s psychological orientation and on three contextual variables: group atmosphere, task structure, and leader’s power position”. The other is Hersey & Blanchard’s situational theory which is built on the “notion of relationship and task dimensions to leadership and adds a readiness dimension”. The last major contingency theory is the situational leadership theory which proposes that effectiveness of decisions is based on several situational aspects including the importance and quality of the leadership. The amount of information held by the leader and its relevancy will influence whether the subordinates are going to accept the leader in the first place (Robbins, 2005, p. 15).
Organizational performance can be measured through the output of services and products that the organization is making in a unit time. Customer feedback is also a good indicator of how the organization in performing. Feedback might either be positive of negative which will help the organizational management to evaluation their performance levels.
Value chain management incorporates a number of independent and interconnected systems to coordinate activities with a view of creating value by producing goods and services from purchased raw material. The incorporation of value chain management enhances communication and increases cooperation between production departments and it is majorly aimed at reducing time of delivery, inventory period, with the ultimate purpose of increasing the client satisfaction.