Producing high quality products to fulfil customers’ satisfaction is one of the main concerns of organizations in the world. During the past years, an increasing number of companies have implemented Lean management. This approach has become a major strategic objective of business leaders. Largecompanies worldwidehave hadto be flexibleand adaptivein order todeal effectively withthe economic crisis and, more recently, to be ableto take advantage ofthe economic recoveryapparent.Parallel tothis dynamicmarketaround the world, companies have adoptedLeanManagement,a key catalyst fortheir survival for some, enhance the quality for others.
Lean manufacturing(lean literallymeans "thin") is a management approach thatfocuses onminimizing theresources used forproductionquantitiesofgoods orservicesat high quality andat a lower cost.
Proponents ofleanseekperformancethrough continuous improvementand continuous improvementthrough the elimination ofwaste.The Lean philosophyfinds its sourcesin Japan;itsmost developed formis today theToyotaProduction System.Adaptable toall economic sectors, lean is currently mainlyoperatesin the industry(above allin the car industry).
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The emphasis on cost reduction, greater operational efficiency and improved customer service, has led companies to become more interested in Lean Management to allocate more resources to Lean initiatives and to adopt Plans for more offensive support programs for the organization which have already implemented Lean. This finding also provides a large number of companies have recently decided to implement a Lean program for the first time.
This implementation can be done in several ways:
- 5S: This is the first tool to implement a lean management approach type, and therefore a fortiori for Lean Manufacturing. 5S can eliminate what is unnecessary to define a place for everything, clean lines define the necessary procedural and finally audit and measure improvement. The main objective is to change mindsets and initiate a policy of continuous improvement.
- Analysis VSM (Value Stream Mapping): This method of analysis of Lean manufacturing is to define the main reserves of productivity of a production unit following the complete flow of the production of a piece. The measurement of the flow time of parts, inventory levels and their valuepermit improvement projects to establish priority in Lean Manufacturing.
- The SMED (Single Minute Exchange Die): This method of Lean Manufacturing, first used to reduce tool change time, can be used for more flexible production process or any administrative. The aim is the progressive elimination of stocks and improving productivity through the implementation of a responsive and flexible organization.
- The TPM (Total Productive Maintenance): The TPM is an essential tool to measure Lean Manufacturing failures and downtime, and risks. A corrective action plan can be settled, and a real management of preventive maintenance.
- The Hoshin flow: This method combines several tools of Lean Manufacturing to optimize flow through the reduction of flow time, the elimination of intermediate stocks, elimination of non-productive time, and balancing production jobs.
- Kanban: This is a system of production scheduling based card (or via a simple visual system) to draw the flow. Kanban is frequently used in Lean Manufacturing for the management of flows from. It is therefore theoretically opposed to the MRP method, which manages the flow by pushing. Kanban, however, can be combined with MRP method. It allows the management of internal flows leaving the workflow external MRP.
- The visualization or operational display (andon): This is an essential part of any Lean, whose aim is to inform in real time and enable an immediate response to problems. The operational display of Lean Manufacturing / Management must be put in place at all levels of the company, and take into account the objectives and the problems encountered at each level.
- The Poka-yoke: These are simple systems to avoid inadvertent errors by operators. Poka-yoke are also called "mistake proofing" fluently and are used in Lean Manufacturing.
The present work is based on aspecific company, a major car maker player of premium sector evolving in a high competitive market. Its direct competitors are two European premium car makers which have a common ambition to offer premium-quality vehicle.
To better understand thekey challengesfaced byenterprises in theimplementation ofPoka-yoke solutionsand assess theoverall level of satisfactionwith regard tothis type of program, the current work analyses the different approaches to implement Poka-yoke solutions based on a profound literature review.
1-2: Problem and objectives
It is encouraging to see many organizations turn to Lean Management to address these urgent challenges, be aware that as for advanced users and for newcomers, a successful Lean program, even the best-intentioned, is like a journey fraught with pitfalls.
Clearly, lessons can be learnedby observingthe initiatives undertakenso farto better understandwhysomeLean programsworked betterthan others. The implementation of Lean is not always easy as the company concerned.
Many companiesinitiallydeployLeanprogramfocusingon the useof tools to improveresults quickly.This approachgenerally gives rise toa wave ofoptimism aboutthe program.However,this optimismquickly turns intodisappointment, thebehavioral changesneeded tolean managementand sustainabilityprogressbeingabsent.Indeed experience shows that a period of up to two years is necessary for the company to integratebehavioral changerequiredand drawsmorebenefits fromitsLeanprogramover
the yearsor, on the contrary, does not succeed, and sees itsLeaninitiativesfalling under the Poka-yokeotherinitiatives that could beimplemented.As mightbe expected,adoptbehavioral changesnecessaryto make the programviableis noteasyand often takeslonger thanother aspects ofimplementation ofLean,such as the deploymenttools andstandard methodologies.However, thecomponent"Behavioral change" is a key elementof any programLean.When asked aboutthe specific challengesposed by theimplementation ofLean, executives putbehavioral changeswell ahead ofthe challenges ofdeploymenttoolsor eventhose related to theprovision ofsufficient resources tomaintaining aleanprogram. More specifically,almost halfofrespondentscited"resistance tochange /culture" or "lack of interest /commitment tooperational excellence" as fundamental barriersto their experienceLean.During the deployment phase of the process, the reluctance of employees can be met within the company. In fact, any improvement process initiated naturally tends to create distrust staff.
The thesisis structuredin such way to providea logical approachto the problemand the different objectivesare definedas follows:
To provide a profound literature review of Poka-yoke methodology, the value chain of human resource and the human’s reaction faces to changes at work place.
To conduct an analysis of the case company’s implementation of Poka-yoke solutions, training methods and finally the adaptability of the user.
To provide conclusion and recommendation of the problem based on the literature review and analyses
To overcome this resistance, it is important to involve all staff at the beginning of the implementation (Baglin and Capraro, 1999). Thus, it was advised to initiate the process with a phase change employee attitudes (Roos, 1990).
In addition, the implementation of Lean should not be regarded as a set of tools and principles but as an independent system. Thus, Womack and Jones suggest a parallel implementation of certain principles (Womack and Jones, 2005). Lean is defined as a holistic approach, the main constituent elements interact. For example, the diagnosis is nothing without a feasible plan of action, which itself would have no impact without adequate training of staff (Baglin and Capraro,
1999). This view of the implementation of Lean is shared by other authors (Koskela, 2004; Doolen and Hacker, 2005; Hicks, 2007).
Moreover, it should also be noted that the benefits generated by the Lean not limited to improving operational performance, strategic and administrative. Indeed, several studies have identified positive impacts on the Lean system personnel. For example, the implementation of Lean generates improved staff motivation (Baglin and Capraro, 1999 De Treville and Antonakis, 2006). Saurin and Ferreira also observed an improvement in working conditions after the implementation of Lean in a large U.S. automotive sector (Saurin and Ferreira, 2009).…
In addition, lean production can induce INCREASE skills since, for example, staff involved in problem solving, receive training, and to a lesser extent its activity varies.
Some consultants also pointed out that the complexity of vocabulary Lean employee could be an obstacle to the implementation of the program. Clarification of each term Lean must be made in advance with the entire staff.
Another difficulty encountered in the implementation of Lean practices
concerned the pressure and tension that the deployment of a new approach posed to human resources. This result is in agreement with other authors who have studied the effects of a more intense pace of work and stress
Health workers in the deployment of Lean (Landsbergis et al., 1999). However, as explained above, it is difficult to state categorically that the increase in stress is the result only of Lean and not managerial choices (Conti et al., 2006).
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