Acid rain refers to a form of precipitation, which contains acidic particle, such as rain. The acidic nature of rain is usually due to the high level of hydrogen ions that decreases the pH rating. This precipitation usually results from the reaction of water molecules with the emitted pollutant gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. Such gases could be either from the industrial waste release, volcanic eruptions or electric discharge by lightning. When they react with the water molecules, acidic rain is produced during the downpour.
Because of acid rain, there are myriad effects to the ecosystem, structures and human populations. In the ecosystem, acid rain has adverse effects on plants, animals and their niches’ condition. The performance of plants is interfered with their ecological requirements. This occurrence causes low production of certain species of plants or completely different ecological conditions change such as undesired infinite increase in nutrients in the soil. Aquatic animals are mostly affected by the occurrence of acid rain because it interferes with the acidic content of the water. This significantly affects their survival, breeding and food availability (Morgan, 1999). This could lead to a decline in their numbers. Moreover, acid causes erosion and corrosion of structures that contain reactive elements with the components of acid rain; human beings encounter the impacts of acid rain from the water they consume and foodstuffs that absorbed acid water during growth.
Several measures have been taken to mitigate the adverse effects of acid rain. The innovation of technological solutions helps to counter the level of pollutant gases emitted to the atmosphere and lessen the various effects of acid rain. These technological solutions aim at recycling gases or dissociating them to multiple chemical elements. International treaties have contributed significantly towards the reduction of pollutant gases emitted to the atmosphere by different countries (Petheram, 2003). Additionally, the promotion of emissions trading was critical towards the reduction of the level of pollutant gases emitted.
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