Human beings occupy land because of the demands for agricultural production, exploitation of fossil fuels and minerals, and expansion of road systems and urban centers (Silva et al., 2011). It is necessary to organize the land use, especially in remote areas, to allow for sufficient soil exploitation and transform the landscape development to enhance sustainability (Kumar, 2009). Planning in the exploitation of natural resources and land is extremely significant because the irresponsible and disorderly occupation in agricultural districts pushes the land’s capacity to the limit. In the contemporary society, public administrators, researchers, and companies employ computer technologies for successful environmental planning and management of natural resources and land (Randolph, 2004). For instance, geoprocessing uses computer technologies to play a significant role in transportation, mapping areas, analysis of natural resources, communication, rural and urban planning, and energy (Silva et al., 2011).
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Expansion of the management zones for livestock and agriculture has resulted in a large-scale removal of indigenous vegetation cover (Silva et al., 2011). The indigenous forests play a significant role in reducing soil erosion, filtration of polluted water, regulation of sediments, and protection of habitats for animals and birds, encouraging biodiversity. For instance, the Atlantic Forest ecosystem has hosted enormous occupation of outstanding urban centers, industries, and sugarcane plantations, which have led to severe consequences like high habitat fragmentation (Silva et al., 2011). Native vegetation in riparian areas serves as a protection cover of water bodies from wave actions, especially lakes and stream banks. This is because the forest under storey, shrub roots, and tree roots stabilize banks.
Economic and environmental zoning allow for the assessment of an environment, regarding biotic and physical features, which serves as a planning instrument that guides decision makers, including public managers, direct land users, and landowners (Silva et al., 2011). It has been evident from the study that the use of land without any meaningful management action, in many years, promotes mainly soil erosion, siltation of watercourses, and cattle overgrazing (Silva et al., 2011). This situation may lead to the flooding of watersheds, which will promote environmental and economic damage.
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