This forms an introduction to sampling and analysis techniques, which are applied in freshwater ecosystems. This paper puts more emphasize on river systems. The main methods of improving water quality have been focused on the process of river basin management planning. The process makes use of environmental conditions and standards, in assessing risks pertaining to ecological quality of water environment, and identify improvement scales that ensures healthy water, not only water in good condition. These standards and conditions are because of best scientific understanding of the requirements of both aquatic plants and animals. According to the available data and knowledge permits, these standards are aligned in correspondence to biological standards. As a result any failure in standard and condition, the ecological impacts will be very adverse.
It has been proved that, a balance between water environment protection and its sustainable use has to be designed. This will enable individuals escape costs that might be incurred in the process of attaining environmental standard or condition limits, when restoring very much polluted ecological status to healthy waters. This paper aims at comparing current water environment condition with appropriate standards through various methods like for instance; identifying the causes of adverse impacts on aquatic plants and animals.
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The method of assessing Differences in Habitat and Water Quality of River Almond depends on weather condition for some activity to be undertaken. There are two sites for sampling, of which both need to be tributaries of river Almond. Sampling of benthic invertebrates at each side follows standard technique used by GB Environmental agencies, which involves three minutes kick sample using a 900 micro-meter wire mesh net. In the process of sampling and subsequent sorting, all samples need to be labeled clearly with site names, date and collectors (The Scottish Government, 2008). Sample sorting in lab can be undertaken if time allows if not, it is presumed to be 70% alcohol and sorted after fieldwork.
On top of benthic community sampling, there is also physic-chemical condition recordings for the prediction of RIVPACS/RICT for the sites. Some variables include source distance, altitude and slope. Some collected information. Some of the collected information might to some extent overlap with that collected within river habitat survey. During sorting large objects, need to be removed to make it easier for the remaining material sorting. After sampling, the next step will be identification. There need to be standard keys for all taxes that might be encountered. Identification need to be undertaken with much care as any mistake in initial stage time consumption. Identification need to be undertaken at a family level to work with given keys. A long required calculation details, the BMWP is provided overleaf.
At every site, there is need for morphological pressure survey, which describes the nature and extent of any alterations to form and riparian habitats. The Morphological Impact Assessment Systems (MImAS) technique is to be used in this process. The initial step of MPS survey entails identification of types of morphology prevails. The presence, extent and location of different morphological pressures are recorded by MPS. In the following broad categories, pressures of relevant zones are recorded; bridges, engineer works, impoundments, floodplains. The method of computing footprints of different pressures depends on pressure types. The pressure significant weights different pressure's footprints and when combined, they provide overall assessment of river modification.
Fisheries survey will be undertaken in the two sites by the use of electro-fishing technique, before the survey full safety has to be given to researchers. Fish identification need to be according to fish species, hence measured and weighted in the field. It time allows, three electro-fishing need to be thrice for every stretch, hence allowing estimation of population size by the use of depletion method. Some of these methods include; depletion method enrich repeated surveys have to be undertaken on a similar stretch. Another method simplest method is two-pass method in which there is the undertaking of two surveys. The Seber-Le Cren (1967) is then applied. The help of some software that have been designed to perform relevant calculations does the population size estimation in most cases. In using this software, it is good to ensure that, other data does not exist below the table, or even in the seven columns on the right hand side of the data table, as this is the point that the out put will be displayed, and it simply writes at the top of what all right exist.
Concerning the chemistry of water, water samples need to be taken at is very site for subsequent water analysis in the lab for major nutrients. Clean-labeled acid-washed polypropylene will be used in the collection of water samples. For the minimization of trapped air in the samples, is done by filling the bottles completely, and kept at 40c in a cool-box (Forth District Salmon Fishery Board, 2010). Whatman filters in the lab are then used in the removal of particulate materials, which might end up influencing the results. The analysis of water samples will be done with the aim of analyzing major inorganic nutrients like nitrates, by the use of colorimetric methods by the help of Autoanalyser. The method that is employed by autoanalizer entails the reactions of ions in the foods, with a series of reagents to form a colored product. By the help of obtained results from the predetermined dilution standards, there is a construction of a standard curve for the determination of concentrations of unknown samples. Since, preparation of samples is through filtration, it is then much significant to produce a series of standard dilution for every nutrient that is being determined. The accuracy of results has been researched and found that, it relays on measurement accuracy. For volume requirements, pipettors are supposed to be checked and adjusted, and calibrated by weighing water (1ml = 1g).
Surface Water Qualities
Temperature affects the growth and development of aquatic species. It usually affects tolerance, metabolism mechanism, success in reproduction, diseases resistance. The indirect effects that temperature can have on aquatic species may include changing water chemistry by changing solubility and effects on consumption of oxygen.
More stringent temperature standards should apply to River Almond under fresh fisher directive. Individuals have an obligation to apply these temperature standards. The proposed new standards for the assessment and protection of ecological status and ecological potential of rivers need to apply on river Almond. Since the proposed standards for better are not as stringent as compared to the existing standards, hence, compliance with new standards will not demand more from action operators.
Currently there is no enough scientific knowledge on how temperature decrease or increases can adverse ecological effects in this water. This is partly due to complex thermal structure of waters that are created by the gradient of natural temperatures. The standards established in Fish water directive will only apply to fish and shellfish protected areas only.
High phosphorous concentration promotes plant growth, hence changes in biomass and composition of plant community in River Almond. This on the other side results to reduced dissolved oxygen, (DO) levels. It also lowers transparency of water. These and other related changes adversely affect the population of fish and the invertebrates. Phosphorous in sewage effluent discharges, and run-off from firms in which fertilizers have been applied all goes into river Almond. There need to be standards to align with the exercise of calibration on biological standards for plants in river Almond (Pollard Et al 2001). Some parts of river Almond have fresh waters water, as a result, they lack nutrients. The propose standards are in many cases somehow less stringent as compared to management standards applied previously.
Raise in nitrogen concentrations promotes growth of plants hence altering biomass and composition plants. This also leads to reduced DO levels, lowers transparency and might lead to toxic algal Blooms. These adversely affect the population of fish and invertebrates. In sewage effluent, nitrogen is contained in, and in run-off from especially l land that fertilizers have been applied. The light availability has been reduced in standards for transitional waters. This is based on the fact that turbidity is more in a relaxed than OSPAR threshold values. This is based on a fact that growth of plants in estuaries usually has low response to nutrients as compared to clear water estuaries due to low light availability.
These occur naturally in waters, some of them occur as an effect to natural erosion. In extensively urban development, Suspended solids might be because of human impacts. Due to originality and form of suspended solids proves it very much difficult to come up with standards that can deal with suspended solids. In freshwater fish, protected areas, guidelines established by Fish water directive, will apply in accordance with the directive.
Patterns of higher flow in river almond is much important in maintaining sedimentation, erosion, deposition and transport which maintains and keep on refreshing river habitat, that then supports biological diverse river ecosystems. Such speed also triggers and maintains migration of fish and other ecological activities. The use of second trenches assists in assessing risks caused by changes to the regime of river flow to major dams, there are no limits that can be used in dealing with such conditions. The problem of coming up with laws to deal with such condition is very hard as major water supplies and hydropower generations, as an effect to compliant with such standards is far much higher.
A salinity gradient characteristic and low water channel of estuaries creates different ecological niches in these estuaries. Plant materials and other forms of nutrients carried into River Almond fresh waters. Flow is also much significant in supporting the food web by the estuaries. The forces that limit flow into estuaries are in a form that assists in assessing risks due to major changes to the river flow regime into estuaries, for instance these originating from major transfers of water between river catchments (The Environment Act 1995.). Currently there are no laws for freshwater flow into transnational waters.
Diversity of habitats on river Almond that is much needed by aquatic plants and animals at varied life cycles is much provided by physical structures. Furthermore, the shore zone provides the input of plant materials and invertebrates, which the end provides food for aquatic animals, like fish. Engineering works on the other hand leads to a reduction in ecology diversity. This usually affects the plant and animal conditions, which relay on these physical habitats. Engineering works are less common lochs as compared to rivers. Changes have been undertaken as being part of transport infrastructure works, for the enhancement of water storage of both water supply and/or schemes of hydropower; or even facilitating access to lochs for the recreational; purposes.
The new conditions will standardize means of risk assessment and ensure consistency. It will furthermore assist in the identification of areas in river Almond that were affected by morphological alterations in the past.
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