Table of Contents
Statements which portrayed that results obtained from a study aimed at identification of exposures which were associated with a neurological disorder in adolescents that was characterized by headaches and few seizes in some cases was true. The statements, which asserted that adolescents who played video games were at a higher risk of suffering from neurological disorders as opposed to those who did not, at a ratio of 2:1 respectively, are true. This is because interactive video games are known to make the adolescents to become part of the action, serving as an agent for facilitating violence thus triggering neurological disorders. Statements asserting that adolescents who read books regularly other than school books stood high chances of suffering from neurological disorders than those who did not are false (Bishop, 2011).
According to the studies conducted, it can be ascertained that playing video games was associated with high possibilities of having the neurological disorders in adolescents and that reading regularly is in no way associated with the cause of neurological disorders in such adolescents. The statements which assert that students who were diagnosed with the neurologic disorder had greater odds of having played video games than controls are definitely true. The statements that the playing of video games was a protective factor associated with having reduced odds of the neurological disorder are wrong. This is because playing of video games is known to aggravate the situation.
2. (B) The use of Cellular phones and how they are associated with Brain Cancer
On the other hand, studies conducted have indeed revealed that the use of cellular phones was associated with the development of brain cancer in individuals. Basing on the calculated odd ratios, it can be ascertained that indeed, exposure to cellular phones was responsible for brain tumors found in some students in the sampled schools. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has admitted that the continued use of Mobile or cellular phones could possibly increase the risk for brain tumors.
2. (C) Case control on admission to College
According to a case control study aimed at ascertaining factors which were associated with students’ admissions to college, it can be truly ascertained that being female increased the chances of one being admitted to college (40% more) as compared to being males and that alcohol had no influence on students’ admissions to College. Sports were also known to increase the chances of students joining college. The odds of smoking were however higher in students who were admitted to College as opposed to those who were not admitted thus making the claim in the assumptions wrong.
2 (D) Calculation of Odds ratio
Odds Ratio=PG1/ (1-PG1)
PG2 / (1-PG2)
Whereby PG1 implies the odds of event in interest for Group one (1) while PG2) implies the odds of the event of interest for Group 2
The values obtained from the odds ratio above imply that many women who did not have their first child at age 25 or older were at high risk of developing breast cancer as opposed to those that had their first child when they were below 25 years.
The risk of developing breast cancer was higher in women who had their first child at an older age as opposed to those who had the first child at a younger age.
3. (A) the Relative risk of anxiety associated with Coffee
A 2x2 contingency table for the data
|Total population||Occurrence of anxiety|
|Event does not happen||20000||200|
The consumption of caffeine and coffee is normally associated with other risks and variables. People who drink coffee are normally known to experience anxiety and become depressed. The consumption of coffee was also known to result in relative risks of ailments like the coronary heart disease.
3. (B) Thyroid tumors and Cancer
|Exposure to radiation||Yes||No||Total|
|Beginning Thyroid Tumor|
|Exposure to radiation||Yes||No||Total|