Antisocial personality disorder is known as mental health condition in which a person develops a long-term pattern of exploiting, manipulating or abusing the rights of others. This kind of behavior is called criminal behavior. While, Conduct disorder is known as psychiatric syndrome commonly diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, and presents itself by a longstanding pattern of violations of social norms which leads to antisocial behavior. The research paper goes into detail to discuss these two disorders and we look at George’s case (Derefinko, 2008).
The Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)
Antisocial personality disorder is specifically a repetitive pattern of violating and disregarding the rights of others. Diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder state that the pattern must have at least three or four of the following specific symptoms and signs. The person does not follow laws hence ends up committing serial crimes, Continuous deceit towards others especially lying, using aliases or conning people for profit or pleasure. Individuals with ASPD are very impulsive, they fail to give explanations for what they are doing and cannot plan ahead. A person with antisocial personality disorder gets angry and annoyed very easily, recurrently assaults others or gets into frequent physical fights with other people.
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A person with this condition does not care other people’s safety as well as his/her own. The person does not feel guilty about wrong-doing. This condition is also characterized by persistent lack of taking accountability, such as failing to establish a model of good work habits, to meet financial obligations and to take parental responsibility, alcohol and drug abuse and lack of steady job. Recurrent job usually changes through quitting and/or being fired. This disorder is regularly diagnosed amongst adults and it is not diagnosed in individuals younger than 18 years of age, but the affected individual starts to show symptoms of this disorder at least since 15 years. The individual constantly displays a pattern of insincere, truancy, negligence, substance abuse, running away from residence and may have had troubles with the law. Additionally, it cannot be diagnosed if an individual only shows symptoms of antisocial disorder at the same instance suffering from schizophrenia or having a maniac episode. This disorder tends to crop up in about 1% of women and 3% of men in the United States.
The Criteria for Conduct Disorder
A diagnosis of conduct disorder requires a pattern of repetitive behavior that violates vital rights of other people and disregards social norms. An individual must demonstrate at least three of the subsequent symptoms usually over a 12 month-period and at least one decisive factor which has been noted in the past 6 months. Symptoms may include:
- Breaking rules without obvious reasoning;
- Cruel or destructive behavior toward people (for example: harassment, fighting, threatening others, forcing sexual activity, using dangerous weapons, stealing and being physically violent to other people);
- Missing school (truancy - beginning before age 14);
- Heavy illicit drug usage and alcohol drinking;
- Lying to get profit or intentionally setting fire;
- Vandalizing and destroying properties and escaping when something wrong has happened;
- Deceitfulness or theft (breaking into someone else’s building, house or a car, forgery and shoplifting).
Allied characteristics of conduct disorder comprise an incapability to be glad about the significance of prosperity of other people and little fault or regret about hurting others. Young people with conduct disorder very often broaden skills outwardly expressing regret to stay in favor or remain unpunished, but do not have any obvious feeling of guilt indeed. Patients who suffer from conduct disorder frequently look at others malevolently or threatening without any gronds. In result, these people may tie out preemptively, and unprovoked belligerence may appear.
Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and APD
Conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder are interconnected in such characteristics of conduct disorder as criminal behavior during early ages of 14 progressing into antisocial personality disorders as soon as an individual grows and turns 15 or 16 years of age, this is evident in an individual who misuse alcohol or other substances. Demeanor disorder is a predecessor of antisocial personality disorder due to the antisocial actions that an individual depicts when having a behavior disorder.
Information Predictable to be Found on the Inmate’s Assessment (Past History and Behavior of George From 18-33 Years of Age)
The information includes:
George in his teenage days may have been less apprehensive than other teenagers who are prone to regret after doing something erroneous and are more disturbed about the penalty for their behavior which characteristically deters them from future wrongdoings. In George’s case he may offer information of being less scared hence cannot be regretful if he does anything wrong. Frequent dishonesty and deception: this is evident as George lied to citizens that he would put roofs on other people’s houses which he on no account did. Using aliases: George never used his name but a pseudonym conned other people in the manner making revenue or satisfaction; George spent money he got from other people to purchase expensive possessions such as a car (Fazel, 2002). Poor work practice: George did not deliver his work duties to put up house roofs.
Past History/Behavior of George Before 15 Years
Lack for courage to make friends and fearing to go to school are among others features of antisocial behavior. He was less apprehensive of erroneous doing and has never had any compunction when he found himself doing something wrong. He was pitiless to animals and even harassed other children at school or within the village.
Causes of ASPD
The cause of rebellious character disarray is unknown for many psychological health matters but it is obvious that inherent character and a petite bit of the ecological factors facilitate to its enlargement. Theories come up with approach that suggests the above account and one of such theory suggests some effects in the brain which results in ASP. These abnormalities include persistent bedwetting, learning disorder and hyperactivity. Yet another theory claims that people who suffer ASPD need greater sensory contribution for normal brain functioning. It is proved that antisocial people suffer low skin conductance, low resting pulsate rates and show reduced amplitude on some brain section which measures the efficiency of this theory.
The surroundings also facilitate antisocial personality turmoil. Parents of distressed children often show a lofty level of unsociable behavior themselves. In a study done, the parents of felonious boys were found to be more often criminal or alcoholic, they suffered from the absence of a parent or separation and their homes were regularly disrupted, Secondly, unsuitable discipline or insufficient supervision contributed to children 's disruptive behavior in their earlier age (Brown, 1994). Thirdly, a child who is brought up in a troubled home or with single parent may enter the adult stage emotionally indignant. Without having strong bonds, he/she is self-centered and unsympathetic to others.
Child abuse is another surroundings factor. Children who are abused grow up with slipshod and sometimes brutal antisocial parents and this leads to a learned behavior. Grudging a young child of a momentous emotional bond may damage his aptitude to form cherished and trusting relationships, which explains why those adopted children are difficult to enhance antisocial personality disorder
Principles of Abnormal Psychology Used to Profile George Include:
This bloc explains clinical symptoms which cause considerable destruction.
Personality and Mental Retardation
This affiliation is characterized by long-term problems. Personality disorders have great considerable problems in the way patients relate to the surrounding which leads to antisocial personality disorder.
These include medical and physical circumstances that may manipulate or worsen the disorder.
Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
Any environmental or social problems which may impact or manipulate the disorder are linked to the above assessment. These may include such things as relocation, unemployment, divorce, or even death of the loved one.
Global Assessment of Functioning
This bloc helps the clinician to carry out client’s overall level or ability of functioning. Based on these criteria, clinicians can clearly understand how the other blocs interact and what is the effect on the individual's lifestyle. This principle could give answers to whether George is guilty or not of offences committed (Glenn, 2007).
George has legal rights that must be considered when being treated and they include:
George is unconstrained to confidentiality and any health care providers must make sure that his treatment is not exposed to other people or to the public.
George must be competent enough to make agreement of treatment or his close relative should consent for the treatment process.
Issues of Consent:
George may not be able to assent his treatment and therefore his relative should be contacted to allow for his treatment in proper manner.
Questions to Ask to Assess Suicide:
Have you ever had a time where you felt so bad that you tried to kill or hurt yourself?
Which month you found yourself so much depressed?
Have you been bothered by little interest or pleasure in doing things lately?
Have you attempted suicide before?
Could you stop yourself from killing yourself?
The above questions will enable the health care provider to understand whether George has any intentions to commit suicide. The intent will be evident depending on how he answers the questions. In the above questions, if the answer s to questions 1-4 is "Yes" and number 5 "No" then George might have intent of killing himself and must be investigated (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). If George was at risk of suicide the prison staff will have to assess the risk of self-harm and harm to others and negotiate the removal of items which might be used to harm the individual.
Treatment for Suicide Ideation
It has been well-known that antidepressants are efficient in avoiding suicidal ideation, and discerning serotonin may act more quickly as compared to other known agents. Suicide-prevention measures include also instantaneous psychiatric hospitalization for patient's fortification, as well as further check up and psychiatric assessment.
Treatment for ASP
Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder is very difficult task to achieve. Some of available include schema therapy which helps to change negative attitude hence developing positive approaches to life. Others include typical psychotherapy which is used to reward victims to change behavior, and selective therapy which makes an individual to become trustworthy (Black, 2006). Law and policy programs should be put in place that will be used to treat George by coming up with a plan to allow George to see special doctor e.g. by assigning a state or special doctor to go see him in the prison and set up a place for his treatment or the law can allow George to have hospital visits whereby he will be transported to the hospital to receive his treatment. This is possible and should be done since George is a citizen hence he has a right to medical care whether or not he is in prison.
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