Hoeger & Hoeger (2009) define fitness of human body as a measure of the body's capability to carry out various functions in an effective and efficient way during leisure activities and work, to be healthy, resistant from hypokinetic diseases such as obesity, and to satisfy emergency situations. Body physical fitness comprises general fitness and specific fitness. These two concepts are related where general fitness means the wellbeing and health of the body while specific fitness is based on the capability of the body to do specific aspects of occupations or sports. Physical fitness is usually achieved by exercise, enough rest and correct nutrition. Total body fitness of an individual can be defined by how well the body can perform components of physical fitness such as cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition (Hoeger & Hoeger, 2009).
Cardiovascular endurance is one's physical capability to maintain aerobic exercise for protracted periods of time. The cardiovascular or cardiopulmonary endurance is concerned with the efficiency of one's body to transfer oxygenated blood to the working body muscles in due course of activities especially when the activities can last for a period of more than 90 seconds. This component is very important since the more cardiovascular fit an individual is, the less stress is put on the heart and lungs hence enabling one to avoid illness so as to live a lengthy healthy life (Michael et al., 2000). Muscular strength is another component that is defined as the amount of force that one's body muscle can exert against a short duration resistance during the anaerobic activities. The types of resistance in this case include external objects like free weights as well as one's own body weight. Muscular strength is very important because it enhances the efficiency and effectiveness at activities of daily life (Michael et al., 2000).
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Muscular endurance is a component of fitness that is concerned with sustained muscle contractions as well as other anaerobic activities taking place in less than a period of 90 seconds. Muscular endurance acts a bridge between cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength such that for an individual to be cardiovascular fit he or she must first demonstrate muscular endurance. Flexibility is another component of fitness that deals with different motions possible for joints or group of joints in the body. Body flexibility determines how efficient the muscles operate. The more flexible an individual is the more the risks of chronic and acute injuries are decreased. Poor flexibility affects cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance and muscular strengths directly (Greenberg et al., 2004). Body composition is the component of fitness that deals with the percentage of one's body tissues he or she exhibits. Two compartment analysis is used to look at body composition as it approximates the amount of body fat one has with lean body mass which comprise of bone, muscle, organs, and water. Poor body composition leads to adverse psychological and physical effects for instance chronic ailments and depression (Greenberg et al., 2004).
It is very important for an individual to be physically fit so that to avoid many challenges in the physical world like fatigue in doing exercises and chronic illness which are disturbing. Demonstration of the major five components of physical fitness is a possible indication that an individual is healthy. Body organ system becomes very effective and efficient in carrying out various vital activities when all the components of fitness can be demonstrated.
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