Schizophrenia is a chronic, extreme, and physical incapacitating mental disease that has caused problems to diverse generation of human kind. Around the globe, approximately 1 % suffers from the illness (Slowik, 2009). From its devastating effects, schizophrenia can cause the victims to hear sounds that to other normal people are imaginary, and they have the belief that other people are actually in control their thoughts with bad intention on the victims (Pearce, 2002, p. 135). Such a situation can cause extreme fear to people concerning the disorder that can make the people separate from others. In addition, the disease can make its victims lack sense in their conversations and they can remain normal until the time they expose their thoughts and feelings. More over, its effects are adverse such that victims end up being depended on others. Apart from the individual levels, family and society can also suffer from the disorder accounting for approximately 40 % of extended hospitalizations where its treatment can help mitigate the several symptoms. However, to many victims, they end up effectively dealing with the illness in their entire lives (Pearce, 2002, p. 135). Despite their suffering, they can end up living a successful life, both private and public. From the current efforts underway in the research industry on the disease, new developments are in progress to help establish an effective treatment as well as properly understanding its main cause of schizophrenia (National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). Therefore, from its complications and inadequate treatments, it is important to understand what causes schizophrenia as this helps to perceive the disorder in such a way that eventually leads to its proper management.
As a complex disease, scientists are yet to establish its actual cause. The disease is a disorder that has fifty-fifty chances of contracting and can happen to any one. However, there are theories that can help to understand the cause of schizophrenia. First, heredity factors are some of the causes, genetic susceptibility (Foster, 2003, p. 25). From the fact that schizophrenia affects certain families, heredity is a strong cause, which has basis on the genetic history of a family; some people inherit the disorder from their parents with some having a high probability of suffering the disease than others. This contributes to a rate of 10 % of cases to which the victim has immediate member of his/her family suffering from the disease and a 40 % either in the event where parents or on absolute alike twins suffer the disease. On contrary, from the total cases recorded, 60 % of the cases are from those without any hereditary connection (Slowik, 2009). More over, a study carried on twins that were identical showed that in an instance where one of the two develops schizophrenia, the other twin has approximately 40 to 50 % probability of catching the disease. The risk for fraternal twins after one suffers the disease is high (Levine & Levine, 2008, p. 13).
Secondly, brain chemistry is another vital factor. From the already done researches, scholars suppose that individuals who suffer from schizophrenia experience high sensitivity caused by a chemical found in their brains called dopamine or the levels of this chemical component is produced in large amounts. This chemical component, dopamine, helps in sending of messages between different nerve cells in the brain of the victim (Slowik, 2009). Therefore, in an instance where there occurs an imbalance of the amounts of dopamine in the brain, then, the brain suffers in the manner in which it perceives stimuli leading to schizophrenia conditions.
Thirdly, an abnormality in the brain can lead to schizophrenia. From the latest and currently advanced technology in imaging, researchers are in a position to analyze and understand better the structure of the brain as well as its functions. The available results help conclude that many victims have mysterious abnormalities in their brain organization. Such mysterious abnormalities can be a minute enlargement of the brain ventricles where else some other parts of the brain grow smaller than the normal sizes (Slowik, 2009). However, some people can show different symptoms of the disease where else others who do not suffer from this disorder show similar symptoms to schizophrenia.
Finally, complications that may occur during pregnancy period and birth are other possible causes of schizophrenia. If infections of poor dieting during pregnancy or complications possible during childbirth occur, then the child has high probability to develop schizophrenia during the child’s later stages of development. This means that if a fetus suffers physical injury during birth the risk is high. In the event that lack of enough oxygen coupled by mental or physical disturbances occurring during pregnancy, it can affect the fetus raising the chances of suffering from schizophrenia constituting the environmental factors that contribute to causing schizophrenia. In addition, if a person becomes inclined beforehand genetically, then particular environmental factors can contribute to causing schizophrenia. Moreover, emotionally, if stress from loosing a close relative during young stages of development occurs, then this can be a strong factor contributing to causing schizophrenia (Levine & Levine, 2008, p.13).
In conclusion, schizophrenia complications call for the importance to understand what causes schizophrenia as this helps to perceive the disorder well in such a way that such efforts eventually lead to its proper management. Since its actual cause is still unknown, several factors can help understand the possible cause of schizophrenia. They include hereditary factors, brain chemistry of the victims, abnormal physical brain development and environmental factors such as complications during childbirth. Proper understanding of these factors can lead to new developments, which can help determine the real cause of schizophrenia hence its better management.
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