Thyroid cancer is mostly found in euthyroid patients. Its symptoms includes either hyper or hypothyroidism effect which are mainly associated with a large well differentiated tumor. The majority of the infected patients are characterized with nodule enlargements on their thyroid. The enlargement is however depicted at the early stages of the disease. The nodule is nevertheless not a symptom of cancer as it’s believed that 99% of thyroid nodules are not in the actual sense cancer infected. The disease is however occasioned to the people above the age of thirty. It is estimated that the disease is currently on the rise in the US in accordance with the national cancer institute statistics. It’s estimated that there are approximately 37,000 new cases of thyroid cancer infection every year, something which has raised a lot of concern to the US government. This paper seeks to analyze thyroid cancer infections.
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Thyroid cancer symptom
The most commonly symptoms that dominate the thyroid cancer patients includes the hoarseness and neck pain. Hoarseness in this case is the abnormal harsh and deep voice which is either caused by irritation or injury of the vocal cords. There is also likelihood that such patients depict an enlarged lymph node around their thyroid glad. The thyroid nodules are however experienced by the elderly people above the age of 75 years. This symptom is therefore not common on the young people. The thyroid nodules are mostly not malignant; instead they are benign (Friedman, Friedman, C &Yu, 2006p.146).
The most commonly types of thyroid cancer
In total there are four types of thyroid cancer infections where some are more common than the others. This includes the papillary or mixed follicular, follicular or hurthle cell, medullary and the anaplastic infections. The first two are the most common type of thyroid cancer infections and are further analyzed below.
The papillary and or mixed follicular carcinoma
This is the most commonly type of thyroid cancer which mainly dominate approximately 80% of the disease. The ailment is commonly on ladies between 30 and 50 years of age. This type is mostly characterized with irregular, solid mass which arise from the thyroid tissue (Vanderpump, Tunbridge & Tunbridge, G, 2008p173). This type of cancer is curable and the patients infected with it can survive ten years after having discovered of the ailment. This type of cancer is mostly characterized with a spread to the lymph node around the neck. Small tumors are therefore the core symptom of this type of cancer. Distant metastasis has a severe effect since it’s infect the lung and bones of the patient. This occurrence is however rare and very uncommon.
The papillary and or mixed follicular thyroid cancer management
There have been some controversies on how to handle and manage this type of thyroid cancer among the experts. Some argue that if the tumor is small and has not invaded the sensitive organs, the best way of eliminating the infection is by removing the lobe of the thyroid which harbors into the tumor. The removal in this case is usually done through surgical process. This group of experts is conservative as they are opposed to the entire removal of the thyroid tumor. According to them removing the lobe of thyroid that harbors the tumor is safer as it eliminate the further infections which might be caused by the entire removal of the tumor (Amdur & Mazzaferri, 2005p.288). Among the risk they reduce by their conservative surgical therapy includes the hypoparathyroidism caused by the laryngeal nerve injury. Patients who undergo a total thyroidectomy experiences some nerve injuries which causes some further radioiodine therapy and thyroid suppression. The conservative surgical therapy therefore advocates that patients suffering from this type of cancer should reduce the normal gland tissue that take up the radioiodine (McDougall & Berry, 2006p.175) The conservative surgical therapy is however applicable to the patients with less than 1cm tumor and ranging between the age of 20-40 years. All other tumors should be treated through the total thyroidectomy process despite the infections that accompany the process. The infections are however handled through some radioactive therapy.
Follicular or hurthle cell thyroid cancer
This is also common infection since it dominates approximately 15% of the disease infections. This type of cancer is more aggressive compared to the papillary carcinoma. It mainly infects the elderly people and is characterized with vascular invasions. Distant metastasis is common and mainly infects the lung, bone, brain, liver and skin. The disease is also commonly in women and the spread to the lymph node is uncommon. The curability of this type of disease mainly reduces as the age advances (Rubin, 2006p114).
Follicular or hurthle cell thyroid cancer management
Similar controversies like the ones that dominate the papillary carcinoma still reigns over the follicular thyroid cancer treatment. There are some conservative surgical experts who advocate for the removal of the lobe of thyroid which harbors the tumor. The procedure is however common for the young and for the tumor that does not exceed 1cm length. The tumor also has to be not invading some sensitive tissues for this procedure to be effective. Conversely if the tumor exceeds the 1cm length and patient is elderly, then the total thyroidectomy should undertake followed with some radioactive therapy on the patient.
With the registered increase of the thyroid cancer disease particularly in the US, much ought to be done in order to slow down the infection rate. Considering the high curability of the papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, the infected patients should ensure that they seek some medical attention before the infections reach its advanced stage. With such efforts safer medical techniques with minimal severe effects will be guaranteed by the surgical experts.