Civil wars in America marked as a very crucial time in the history of the nation. Civil wars left behind wounds in America that took many years to heal. Even though, America as a nation has come from far, the ideological mindset that existed during the civil war is still manifesting itself in the form of covert and overt racism.
The civil wars in America ended around 1865. During this period, there were two main turning points, which were Industrialization and Reconstruction. Physical rebuilding in the Southern region began fast and proceeded rapidly. The political, as well as the social organization also advanced quickly during this period between the years 1865 and 1990 (Fisher, 2008). Proper political organization was vital in ensuring that all the rebel states were integrated into a nation and also it was necessary to develop an effective social organization system in ensuring that all the four million slaves that were released could be integrated in the society.
Differences like the ones that were being experienced during the civil war can affect the political environment where voters are divided causing conflict among themselves. This paper looks into the Reconstruction and Civil War as an Era that was a crucial turning point in the history of America since it had effects that were long lasting to the social, economic and political systems in America (Fisher, 2008).
War had destroyed most of the infrastructure in the South including factories, bridges, railway transport and the entire infrastructure. Rebuilding began after 1865, yet rebuilding the Southern society proved to be a challenge since the states that were rebels, at the same period the freed black slaves were required to be integrated into the Southern society. This led President Abraham Lincoln to the Ten Percent Plan. This plan was aimed at helping the released black slaves to be integrated into the Southern Society. The plan was to allow the Southern State to form its own government if only it supported the emancipation of the black slaves (Springer, 2010).
The plan also aimed at abolishing slavery and allowed states back into reunion with all the full privileges (Fisher, 2008). President Lincoln together with the other Republican leaders such as Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Summer felt that the emancipation was a way of guaranteeing political and civil rights of freed men and promote equality among all the citizens. These attempts by President Abraham Lincoln were aimed at draining the confederacy and also shortening the civil wars.
Civil wars were fought between the North Union Sates and the South Slave States. The South State that was dominated by the slaves declared secession from the United States and formed the confederate States of America. It led to a bloody war since the North and the South were both on separate paths. The war lasted for four years. The South was a plantation and followed agriculture economy, whose population growth rate was slow. Since the invention of the cotton gin, cotton farming had proved to be one of the most profitable ventures in the South. With the increase in the number of plantations, there was a need for more labor and this called for more slaves. On the other hand, the North had a large population, developed infrastructure and many urban areas. North America was industrialized and many large factories that were set were run by machines (Fisher, 2008).
Civil wars in America came to be known as the war between States, which were based on the conflicts that existed between the Confederacy and the Union. Before the war, the Union had advantages over the Confederacy, because it had a large population that was about 22 million of which 3,5 million were slaves (Logue & Barton, 2007). This was advantageous to the Union, because they had a high probability of winning the war. The North also had many factories and companies compared to the South, and this meant greater production. Most of firearms and rail equipment’s were produced by the North hence the Confederacy was weaker compared to the Union. Efficient railroad network in the North eased the movement of troops and their materials as compared to the South.
The federal government was equal in that, moreover, it had many Free State representatives who were represented equally like the slave state representatives. The situation changed when California was allowed to become a free state by the South. This affected the balance in the federal government since slavery was the driving force and also the backbone of the economy of the Southern States. With the abolishing of slavery, the Southern States would not be able to function properly, and this led to bloody war (Logue & Barton, 2007).
The African Americans were engaged in the war, and they embraced the idea hoping that they would be free to live anywhere within the United States. Slaves both in the North and the South supported their sides with an aim of earning their freedom. Many of the slaves, who were in the North escaped, while those in the Southern and continued offering their services to the South.
President Lincoln wanted reconstruction to help the freed slaves in purchasing land, voting rights and education. This was never the case, because the president was assassinated in 1865. If the president was not assassinated, it would have been remarkably different to the slaves since the needed change would have been attained (Springer, 2010). If not for the reconstruction that took place during that era, there would not have been the main achievements that were experienced, including, the law on civil rights and the abolition of slavery. On the other hand, Industrialization helped to mold the United States into a world power.
After the civil wars, many changes happened in the American society where there was experienced rapid urbanization and expansion of industries. The cities in America grew not only in population numbers but also in terms of skyscrapers and new means of transport. Many people immigrated to the urban centers in the United States. By the 19th century, there was already a new American culture that had developed from a mix of various religious and ethnic groups. Between the years 1880 and 1922, there were constant conflicts between the management and the laborers in the United States (Logue & Barton, 2007).
Those working in the mining and steel factories faced economic uncertainties, physical danger and were forced to bear with the exploitative work conditions at their workplaces. The families of those who worked in factories as well as in the mines were always in debt; since, they found it hard to clear debts and they were constantly evacuated from homes that were owned by the companies. As a result, the workers were organized to fight against the long working hours, poor pay and dangerous working conditions that the companies were subjecting the workers.
The end of reconstruction was marked with the incorporation of the ex-slaves into the republic where they were granted all the rights as well as privileges of a citizen of the United States. With the reunification of the North and the South, the four million freed slaves were incorporated in the American society. There was experienced rapid immigration, urbanization and industrialization (Springer, 2010).