Charlemagne known as Charles the Great was a ruler of the Frankish kingdom. During his life he made its territory much more bigger, adding Italy, conquered the Saxons and Bavarians, and made the invasion to the territory of Spain. He was the founder of the Carolingian Empire. He ascended the throne after his farther and continued his policy. He was a supporter of the Christianity and protected the policy of Vatican. That is why he pushed the Lombards out of the power in Italy, had a campaign against the people to the east and made the invasion into Muslim Spain. Charlemagne was a great ruler and wise tactic leader for his Empire. He reached the peak of his power when he united almost the whole Western Europe. As a supporter of the Catholic Church, he was trying to integrate its influences into art, architecture and culture. He devoted much of his life to conquest and unit Europe in order to introduce the Christianity over there. During his reign he made a number of important church, education, writing, economic, monetary and policy reforms. In military, he successfully applied the technology of logistics. Having many horses he could provide a quick transportation of his troops on a long distances. The significance of this figure in the history of the middle Ages is that his actions during the rule of the Empire have led to the establishment of both French and German monarchies.
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The Crusades were a series of military campaigns in Western Europe against people with Muslim religion. The emblem of the Crusaders was a cross. Many of them were from France. There were many attempts to invade the Christianity into Muslim world. The purpose of the first crusades was to liberate Palestine, especially in Jerusalem, from Seljuk Turks that cut off the access of Christians from the holy places. Later Crusades were organized for conversion to Christianity the Baltic nations, suppression of heretical and anti-clerical movements in Europe. There were also political and economic reasons like ways of the trades that contributed to the organization of the Crusades. Each of the Crusades was organized under different command. The main Crusades have occurred between 1095 and 1291. The first ones were very successful. The crusaders have established several feudal states that later were conquered by Muslims. The Second Crusade was not successful for kings of Germany and France. They both returned without significant results and with many losses. During the third Crusade many warriors returned home and it was difficult to hold the Jerusalem for those who remain. The forth one had many misunderstandings between its participants. The success of the first Crusades was not sufficient basement for the rest of them. Crusaders have failed and returned home with nothing. The Western Europe spent a lot of efforts on the Crusades. As a result, it undermined its economic, political and social positions. It entailed to a weakening of the Christian Byzantine Empire. The important thing for the Europe was that the Crusades contributed to the fall of the medieval forms. Sailing reached unprecedented development during Crusades. There was also an increase in European trade and manufacture. The cultures of Greeks and Muslims were introduced to the Europeans during the Crusades.
Aztecs were people that occupied the territory of the central Mexico and lived during 14th and 16th centuries. The history of the Aztecs is mostly known from the excavations and descriptions of the Spanish clergymen. Their number was over 1.5 million people. The capital of the Aztec Empire was the city of Tenochtitlan. It is now the city of Mexico. Aztec tribe came to the valley of Mexico from the north, from the lands that now belong to the U.S. Aztec Empire, like most European empires, was ethnically very diverse. During the growth of the Empire, Aztecs culture reached complex mythological and religion traditions. There were significant achievements in the architecture and art. The Aztecs economy was controlled by the nobles and kings and was concentrated around land and labor. The Aztecs had the system of communication between cities. The Aztec civilization had a class structure with slaves. They had developed unique methods for agriculture for that time. In 1521, the Aztec Empire was conquered by Spanish Empire, which founded a new settlement of Mexico City.
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