Table of Contents
Sexual assault in the military of the U.S. has been witnessed for a long time. Extensive media coverage has continuously received a lot of scandals which result from various dimensions of sexual assaults. From recent records, women are more likely to be sexually assaulted by fellow soldiers in a combat than to be killed which also emphasizes the fact that women are more victimized than men. The reports indicate significant incidences of victims showing symptoms of post traumatic stress syndrome which stems from encounters with sexual assault and also combat stress. Among a number of various interventions to this problem is the Department of Defense Sexual Assault Response Policy has been issued by the Defense Department to ensure those involved meet criminal justice (McVeigh, 2013).
1) What are some of unprofessional gender -related behaviors witnessed in the U.S. military?
2) How is a sexual assault measured?
3) What is the difference between sexual assault and sexual harassment?
4) What is the prevalence, attitudes and behaviors concerning sexual assault among male military personnel?
5) What is the significance of the data obtained from the U.S. epidemiology department?
6) Are there any models for community- based prevention of conflict-related violence resulting from sexual assault?
7) How can programs to prevent conflict- related sexual violence be adapted to fit best the cultural context of different country settings?
8) How do national laws and policies impact on the prevention of conflict-related sexual violence?
9) What do survivors of conflict- related sexual violence believe are effective prevention approaches?
10) What do combats believe are effective approaches to prevent conflict-related sexual violence?( Research themes and questions, n.d)
The research is study the common perpetration of sexual assault in the military and look into the role played by the Department of Defense, the military personnel, the criminal justice departments and victims of the assault in the occurrence and prevention of sexual harassment.
Again, issues surrounding violence against women sexual harassment remains among the many crimes that go unreported despite increased national campaigns for its awareness according to 2005 Department of Justice (National Crime Victimization Survey (Martin, n.d.).
It has been shown how individual men control, manipulate or exploit opportunities afforded by these overlapping contexts. The research is therefore tasked to highlight ways of addressing perpetration of sexual assault and reveal the very ordinary situations the assault occurs. The findings from the research will then be able to provide the starting point for public education initiatives about sexual offending (Clark Quadara, n.d.)
There is also need to focus on attempts to explore the plight of the victims of sexual assault and their advocates’ demand for reform which will lead to prosecution of thousands of cases. The failure for the perpetrators to go through a substantial prosecution and subsequent administration of justice is one of the factors that have continually triggered sexual assaults in the military (McVeigh, 2013).
Purpose and Objective
The main objective and purpose of research is to analyze the possible causes of sexual assault in the military, identify the most common perpetrators and victims, the effects of the assault, recommend ways of helping the victims lead a normal life, find ways in which criminal justice has been provided and finally identify mechanisms which will prevent perpetration of the vice (Hyun et al., n.d.).
There are sources that have tried to address the sexual harassment against military service members. Also explored by many authors is the Military Sexual Trauma (MST) and goes ahead to give information on the current policy, procedures, legislation and litigation to support the prevention of and come up with an informed response to Sexual assault (Schulz, n.d).
The research risks missing accurate data due to exaggerations and also most cases of sexual assault are not reported. Also the victims are either not willing to disclose the assault or are choosy on whom they will disclose to. Most victims are also likely to disclose information only when the perpetrator is a stranger to the victim or after sustaining additional injuries or there is need for medical attention (Harrell, et al. n.d).
Research is quite expensive in terms of acquisition of information, legal issues access to victims, the military officials and also processing data, findings and handling of the recommendations.
The lack of a sufficient tool to measure the level of asexual assault is a major limitation in this research taking into consideration that most incidences are reported and not witnessed. For instance, the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) which was developed in an academic setting and adopted in 1995 by the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) , though widely used and considered effective, it has been a challenge adapting it to various military populations( Lipari, et al, n.d.) .
The rate of response is a challenge to the questions asked and the information sought for may be slower than expected. There is therefore the need to adjust the present rate to what is achievable so that over expectation does not affect the choosing of the hypothesis (Module 1: Sexual Assault in the military, n.d.).
The research is conducted in the light of various hypotheses. Men are generally the main perpetrators sexual assault while women are vulnerable to such a vice. It is also hypothesized that most violence which women face is perpetrated by the intimates. Also, the rate of sexual victimization is roughly the same as general population. (Schulz, n.d).
The research involves various systematic ways of solving the problem of sexual assault in the military. It involves exploration on the common scenarios that leads to the perpetration of sexual assault. It describes the classification of perpetrators of the crime as well as those vulnerable to sexual assault in the military (Martin, n.d).
In the methodology used, the Task Force will gather information through site visits, review of the Department of Defense survey data, communication to various individuals such as self- confessed perpetrators as well as victims, reviewing Academy policies, reports as well as data, consulting with subject matter experts and finally communicating with related Task Forces and committees. The report can then be generated by a series of subcommittees and Task Forces. The research will also rely on the survey carried by the Congress to conduct two human relations-related surveys each year which are meant to systematically monitor, and have the perpetrators of sexual harassment and assault of military populations tracked down and their rates determined ( Lipari, et al, n.d.)
Therefore, the paper provides a methodological overview of the Department of Deference survey efforts. The Task Force gathers information from diverse information from many diverse sources as possible in order to assess the Academies’ current culture, policies, practices and strategies for measuring an addressing sexual harassment and assault. The research also describes various effects or outcome of sexual assault such as trauma and ways of dealing with the victims. The role of the Department of Defense in stemming the vice during a conflict is analyzed (Sexual Harassment & Violence at the Military Service Academics, n. d.).