Free «World Affairs: India» Essay Sample

India achieved its independence on August 15th 1947, following a great social and political struggle. The monarchy of British ruled over the country for quite a substantial era, and initially it was looking for trade relations, however in due time the administrative and political ambitions appeared. There were several factors which led to the emergency of a popular movement in India during the struggle for independence; there were uprisings, which sprouted due to the oppressive administration of the colonialists and also the impact of the World War 1 and 2. Even though India was the first to contribute liberally to the war efforts of British, cynicism set in earlier on coupled with the extensive influenza epidemic, heavy taxation and inflation, soaring casualty rates, and, moreover, the interruption of trade throughout the combat escalated the human anguish in India. This apparently caused the prewar separatist movement which revived as an extremist one, moreover, even moderate groups in the Congress wholly submerged their disparities in order to become a unified front (Chatterji pp.27). 

India has had numerous uprisings that were significant in forcing Britain to modify an independent strategy: the first was the revolt of 1857 commonly called the First Independent War, the 1920-1922 Non-Cooperation Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, the 1942 Quit India Movement, as well as other religious and social revolutionaries instigated by Swami D. Saraswati along with his followers in the country. Moreover, the more enlightened imperialistic Englsh recognized that it was impossible to only exploit Indian’s wealth and just accumulate its resources for themselves without giving back to the country and, therefore, the outlay benefit analysis revealed that it was economically more profitable for the colonial master to leave. Again, after the World War 2, the British financial system or rather economy was intensely in mayhem and thence, could not meet the expense of keeping India as its colony. The Muslim league and the Indian national congress attacked the British colony from two sides, this provided an advantage to India towards gaining its independence (Kibriya pp.2).

Mohandas Gandhi was arguably the greatest man in the whole Indian history; he enabled the Indians to regain their national identity, dignity and above all freedom.  He played a pivotal role in the Indian independent movement, although sometimes he wasn’t even present in the nation and observed the political situation of the country being in South Africa; Gandhi advised his fellow countrymen to take a peaceful revolt and to remain honest so as to achieve sovereignty from the colonialists (Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle n.p.).  

Gandhi apparently led some of the main freedom struggles and movements in India, and some of them included the 1920 Non Co-operation Movement, which was a peaceful protest and actually born the Gandhian period in the country. The movement was meant as the enlightening of the Indians on the issue that even the British administration could be counteracted in order not to keep India in check; these thoughts awakened the people for the idea of going in opposition to the colonial rule. Another movement, which was headed by Gandhi, was the Civil Disobedience Group which basically intended to withdraw the people’s support to the British rule by protesting against the levying duty placed on the overseas cloth, salt tax, land revenue, and the downsizing of military expenditure. Actually he took part in the march of Dandi which was a remonstration against the infamous salt tax (Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle n.p.). Furthermore, another major contribution of Gandhi was the establishment of the Quit India Movement in 1942, and the main intention behind its launching was to closely bring the colonialists to bargain amicably with the then Indian leaders. Although the calling ended in the arrest of the officials, they were released later, after Gandhi going for 21 days fasting. 

Ideology generally describes a  combination of social prescriptions and moral  beliefs  that  urges  fundamental  transformation  in  the  preexisting  political  organization for  the  formation  of  the  Idyllic  Society. Gandhi wholly understood the importance of moral authority and this form of power was always pivotal to his actions and thoughts. He was the first to seek to to annihilate  the  legality of the British  ruling in  India,  and thereafter offered  the autonomist  movement a  freshly new type  of authority  formed  from  an original  blend of conventional and  contemporary attitudes. The authority was legalized by Gandhi via appeals towards the “the sacred” and his continuous reference to the Truth, God, and “inner voice”.

The famous Gandhi ideologies of non-violence and truth emanated from the Leo Tolstoy non-war Christian teachings, Jain religion, and Hindu beliefs; this man inspired the whole world through his compelling ideologies and beliefs. His ideology influenced James Lawson and Martin Luther; moreover, Nelson Mandela seemingly followed his philosophy of peaceful protests and non-violence during the South African fight against apartheid. World leaders like Al Gore and John Lennon have pointed out that their lives are guided by some particular pacifist ideas which were endorsed by Gandhi. In the current world, his ideology of non-violence is widely practiced by various governments, movements and organizations fighting for certain rights and freedoms to be recognized (Kibriya 20).

The Muslim league in India was a movement which basically advocated for the formation of Pakistan, which could be a Muslim major country. The leader of the movement argued for the use of the two-nation approach which would identify the Muslims in the whole Indian subcontinent in the basis of their religion instead of their ethnicity or language. Therefore, the ideology lying behind the separation of India into two countries emanated from the concept of religion as the Muslim league termed it as the sole determining aspect in redefining the real nationality of the Indian Muslims, and apparently the large colonial India was partitioned into India which is up to date mostly populated by Hindus, while Pakistan has a large Muslim population (Indian Independence - Indian Independence History n.p.).

After the partition of the colonial India into India and Pakistan, there have been continuous tension and terrorist activities in the region since the division was highly controversial. The British rule has since then been blamed for rushing the entire partition process and it is suspected to have altered or rather influenced the distinct Radcliffe Line towards the favoring of India. Moreover, the rule declared independence of the two nations even before officially partitioning them, and ever since there is constant violence in the region where Muslims fight the Hindus. Due to the complete breakdown of law and order on the boundary of the two countries there were massacres and instigated riots in two countries, and therefore, the two nations have bad implications for the modern world due to the instigated terror activities.


The detachment of Pakistan from India has been one of the most catastrophic of all the political proceedings to have an effect on India. The colonialist rule left after the division of the country into two parts; moreover, India was separated because of religious outline, rather than on the ethnic or economical basis, and it is an adverse fact; those processes lead to the creation of Pakistan which is an Islamic nation, while India is a secular one. Apparently, the question whether it was wise to partition the country still arises, but the bottom line is that the division left the nation totally devastated. There was subsequent migration between the two countries and numerous riots which led to never-ending sufferings and loss of lives; nowadays the region is always in a state of volatility. But the life of Mohandas Gandhi is forever celebrated and remembered, since he strongly stood up in fighting for Indian universal rights.


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