In all the times and epochs people were interested in traveling and getting acquainted with new places cultures. Traveling was always considered an important part of diplomatic and trade relations. In the past century traveling became a significant part of the world's economy, and the new kind of business appeared – tourism. Nowadays people from all over the world travel to different destinations a lot. They are interested in sightseeing, discovering new countries and cultures, becoming a part of authentic traditions. Some prefer to have calm vacations; they relax lying in the sun and taking sunbathes, and sometimes going out to a restaurant to taste some special dishes of the local cuisine. Others prefer urban tourism, paying more attention to the urbanized districts of a city, exhibitions of modern art and other. There are those, who prefer to become ethnic tourists, visiting authentic districts of a city, becoming closer to a particular culture and people. Besides, there are those who prefer to spend their leisure time actively, far from civilization. Such kind of tourism becomes more and more popular not only among youth, but also among those, who have achieved something in their life and now want to get some adrenaline. This type of tourism is applicable to those, who are seeking for some extreme.
With the development of the civilization, accommodations, with technical progress, it became easier to live, because one has everything he or she needs; he or she should not hunt for food or fight for a shelter. But on the other hand, the instincts remained. That makes people from all over the world seek for adventures. Adventure means to experience something new and unexpected, something that a person has never come through before. In the last century, the term “adventure” was connected mostly with extreme sport, but with the development of tourism business, a new kind of tourism, known as adventure tourism, appeared. Adventure tourism does not have a long history; it has started only few decades ago. The first adventure tour was sold in 1970 to Ethiopia, and it attracted tourists all over the world. Later, in the 1980, a trip along the Nile in Egypt became very popular among tourists, as well as hiking at the mountain Ararat. The next decade adventure tourists preferred to visit Thailand and Swiss Alps. At the beginning of the twenty first century, Central Africa, the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica became very popular destinations, mostly because of the opportunities to kayak and trike there. Though this kind of tourism is relatively young, there are several types of adventure tourism:
Accessible tourism. “Accessible tourism enables people with access requirements, including mobility, vision, hearing and cognitive dimensions of access, to function independently and with equity and dignity through the delivery of universally designed tourism products, services and environments. This definition is inclusive of all people including those travelling with children in prams, people with disabilities and seniors.” (Darcy and Dickson, 34)
Disaster tourism is based on people's curiosity. This kind of traveling is aimed to deliver tourists to a place, where there is a high probability of a natural disaster
Jungle tourism means to travel through the jungles with a local guide. Although it is a type of the adventure tourism, it is similar to green tourism.
Overland tourism is when tourists are to see the most of a country they are visiting. Tourists are always provided by a bus or another means of transport and a guide; it often happens that such trips last not weeks but even months. In the recent years it became popular to travel in such a way across African continent or Asia. This kind of the adventure tourism is, perhaps, one of the oldest, because in the sixties there were the so-called “Hippie trail”, when young persons traveled through the Middle East to India or Nepal.
Urban tourism means to explore the unknown areas of industry centers of cities.
Such activities demand not only physical and moral preparations, but also there may be some danger to have such a trip. Although it seems that such kind of tourism is not popular or does not bring profit, that is not true. The most popular countries for the adventure tourism are Nepal, India, Estonia, Chili, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Romania, Latvia and some others. These are not industry countries, their economy is not very stable, that is why tourism may become one of the most profitable businesses for the income for a country's budget. Citizens of a country will have job, for example as a tour guide, and may grand on lease a room or two in their apartments; therefore, their income will increase, they will pay higher taxes, and thus the country budget will also increase. Besides, adventure tourists may help the citizens of a country they visit, for example with humanitarian aid. Another advantage of the adventure tourism is that it helps to increase educational and health care level in a country. On the other hand, adventure tourism is one of the less expensive kinds of business, which can be started even by an alumnus of a university of a business school.
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In 2006 Buckley in his book “Adventure Tourism” described the main keys of the phenomenon of the adventure tourism:
1. Growth. The tourism business is growing and so does the adventure tourism. Rich people and those who lack time consider adventures holidays for short period of time rather than as a lifestyle. The gap between amateurs and professionals is growing, that is why two new kinds of the adventure tourism appeared: the low-skilled and high-skilled tourists.
2. Product Price Pyramid. As every hobby, adventure tourism requires some equipment. There is a small number of expensive specialized equipment, only professionals care about places on remote areas, or go in for sports to be always fit and trained. Besides, the number of products of lower prices, and which not require from a tourist to be skilled, are appearing in the market.
3. More Luxury Adventure tours become more luxurious with every year: comfortable buses, tourist lodges have massage therapist and a spa; the private places with luxurious facilities are offered for tourists who are using diving boats, heliski or surfboats. The ships for a cruise tour always have phones which have connections in any place, and even a parking place for a helicopter. Adventure tourism becomes more profitable for tour operators, because rich people are willing to use their money and live in proper conditions.
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4. Adventure destinations. The list of the so-called «adventure capitals» is growing very fast. Adventure capitals are the cities which are the tourists’ destinations. Many of them has adjusted their economy to the needs of tourists; some use thrilling events, the number of which is growing fast, to attract tourists.
5. Amenity Migration. «In some areas, outdoor recreation opportunities and, to a lesser extent, commercial adventure tourism, have triggered amenity migration. This in turn has led to an increase in adventure tourism as the amenity migrants seek commercial opportunities to maintain their lifestyles.» (Buckley, 28)
6. Retail packaging. A lot of tour companies offer different products in every destination. Such products do not maintain the service base at the destination point; most of them are resell packagers, who offer various local products for international guests. Some tour operators offer the same products not in one destination point, but in a few different ones.
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7. Combination products. It is a wide spread practice among the tour operators to offer different activities and kinds of tourism at one destination point. Such tours are always advertised as a collection of individual tours, but with a discount. These tours are called «combo» products; besides, some of them may involve syndicated marketing, with the activities regulated by different tour operators. If a tour company is about to make such a proposition to its clients, it acquires equipment, permits to conduct some activities and staff.
8. Cross marketing. There is a tendency to increasing cross marketing links between products of adventure tourism and others, which are bought by the same customers. They are made through newspapers, magazines, merchandising, mobile phones, websites, television and movies, musicians, night clubs, restaurants and so on.
9. Exploratories. There are special tours, called «exporatories», which are proposed by many popular tour operators. Such tours do not require becoming first ascenders, dissenters or traversers; the main purpose is that such a tour is new for the adventure tourism company. This term is used as a marketing devise for the advertisement of an adventure, as well as a legal disclaimer that there might be some danger along the tour, and that something may go wrong, unpredictably. Such tours are always bought by professionals, who are skilled and have good equipment.
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10. Flexible itineraries. Some tour companies offer the so-called «Flexible itineraries», which means that a tour is not scheduled; they claim that this is a part of an adventure. Such tours became wide spread and popular and are used in different kinds of traveling — from bus tours to polar expeditions cruises.
Nowadays adventure tourism is developing at a fast pace, but every tourist manager is interested whether it depends on age or social status of a person, whether he or she would have an adventure trip or not; on what group of people the advertisement should be oriented. According to the statistics, youth choose the adventure traveling more often. The main reason is that they are more curious and want to get from life the most they can. In young age they do not have responsibilities, such as family or job, which is why they have time to travel more and be away from home for a long time. On the other hand, there are some factors that may influence the adventure tourism in one or another country. Most of all, these are political and economic reasons, such as revolution or crisis. Tourists chose the country also by the political atmosphere there, because it is unreasonable and may be dangerous to go to a country, which is currently in war, there is a high probability not only to be hurt, but also the embassy of the home country will not be able to help in some particular cases.
After this research, one may have two conclusions. First of all, there are different kinds of the adventure tourism, so one may choose what he or she likes. On the other hand, with the help of the adventure tourism, people will learn to understand each other better and, besides, the level of the world economy will increase. It is very important to develop such kind of tourism in the poor countries, which will help them not only to improve their economies, but also come through, and perhaps, avoid the next economic crisis.