During cancer treatment, most patients are likely to experience acute nausea and vomiting as side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The three stages of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting are: The acute phase, which occurs instantaneously 24 hrs subsequent to chemotherapy. The delayed phase, nausea and vomiting side effects occur 6-7 after radiotherapy. Anticipatory phase usually occurs a few days before chemotherapy. Moreover, intense respiratory nausea and vomiting are the fundamental factors that contribute to the progress and development emesis. Medical reports indicate the most effective control of emesis includes immediate treatment of nausea and vomiting at the acute stage (Molassiotis et al, 2008).
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The early detection and treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is definite prevention of any further development of emesis in the same phase of treatment. Nausea and vomiting affect the therapeutic process of cancer patients. The absence of nausea during chemotherapy permits patients to persevere the entire treatment procedure. Moreover, the absence of emesis allows patients to heal and recover quickly since the brain becomes stronger while concentrating exclusively on the healing of the body. Less nausea and vomiting consequently results in increased uptake of nutrients and fluids into the body’s system. The body develops a strong mechanism that can withstand the harsh treatments of (Buckley & Caple, 2012).
This research paper offers natural intervention to curb the problem of emesis on cancer patients. The first step includes administration of drugs within a period of 4 to 6 hrs. Drugs like Zofran and Krytil are popular in the medical for their effective nature in inhibiting nausea. It is essential to note that the administration of such drugs does not restrict a healthcare giver within the period enlisted in the above sentence. If a patient tends to develop emesis frequently, it's advisable that the health care giver reduces the time frames of administration of drugs to suppress the nausea. For instance, if a cancer patient tends to nauseate after every two hours, in response to such a tendency, the intake of antiemetic drugs should be in every two hours (Molassiotis et al, 2008).
This research paper enlists some of the nausea triggers like, food, various scents, soaps, oils and toxic smell as the most likely factors to cause nausea in chemotherapy patients. Cancer patients are extremely sensitive; they tend to pick up such smell instantly (Cope 2003). To prevent nausea and vomiting from developing it is mandatory that cancer patients avoid exposure to such nausea triggers. Medical reports reveal that most chemotherapy patients tend to develop an allergic to the smell of their own urine. In extreme situations, chemotherapy patients sniff on pleasant scents while urinating to avoid nausea and vomit. Notably anti- nausea therapy should not stop at the end of a therapy session. It is advisable that health care givers prevail with treatment of nausea until 72 hours subsequent to a chemotherapy treatment session (Trigg & Higa, 2010). Health physicians recommend natural remedies and hot tea like ginger-peach tea to calm patients after therapy, therefore, as a result, inhibiting emesis.
The principal objective of antiemetic therapy revolves around complete abolishment of Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Research in the past years reports that 20% of chemotherapy patients tend to stop treatment abruptly because of the adverse effects of vomiting and nausea (Trigg & Higa, 2010). Clinical research carried out in the last have developed gradual methods of tackling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Research reveals that a previous cancer treatment, a history of alcohol intake, vomiting and nausea during pregnancy, tender age and female gender are the risk factors that can result into Chemotherapy induced vomiting and nausea (CINV) (Cope, 2003).
The antiemetic that most physicians recommend to patients suffering from CINV include Dolasetron, Granistetron, Ondansetron, and Palonosetron. Out of all the drugs mentioned above, Palonosetron is the most effective antiemetic. Its efficiency in calming down a patient with a CINV experience outshines all the other drugs. Doctors administer Palonosetron in small doses of 0.25mg (Chan, Shih & Chew, 2008). Even though, steroids are not officially registered as antiemetic drugs, dexamethasone steroid cures the acute and delayed stages of CINV (Ng & Della-Fiorentina, 2010). However, The Italian Group of Antiemetic Research advises that the physicians prescribe the drug in small doses of 20mg (Ng & Della-Fiorentina, 2010).
Recent studies advocate that before physicians perform prechemotherapy procedures on CINV, one should consider the emetogenic prospective of the chemotherapy constituents. In reference to patients prescribed to high dosage of emetogenic elements, physicians should ensure that they prescribe both aprepitant (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) and dexamethasone during chemotherapy (Ng & Della-Fiorentina, 2010). The physician can add lorazepam for an enhanced effect. During the postchemotherapy phase, Aprepitant and dexamethasone occupy a vital position in the preclusion of delay emesis. However, for patients under the prescription of average dose emetogenic during chemotherapy, physicians use 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in conjunction with dexamethasone during the prechemotherapy stage (Chan, Shih & Chew, 2008). In this situation, however, the clinician can opt to use or not use lorazepam (Chan, Shih & Chew, 2008).
Medical officers and other health care practitioners partaking in the administrative procedure of chemotherapy should take into consideration that research reveals that, patients tend to suffer from acute and delayed stages of CINV than most medical practitioners presume. For instance, a certain research report revealed that patients who suffer from prechemotherapy nausea are most certain to develop chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. More the existing agents that medical physicians employs as Prophylaxis do not fit in this criteria or are still awaiting a full research. THs regiments are yet to receive confirmation on their ability to heal CINV. The treatment procedure for CINV is an essential application that all physicians must adhere to in order to meet the world standards of treating CINV (Chan, Shih & Chew, 2008).
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